El presente artículo tiene como finalidad plantear el conflicto normativo que existe en la actualidad en relación al cobro de honorarios de las inmobiliarias al momento de concretar una operación de alquiler con destino a vivienda en la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires.
La Ley local 2.340, que crea el Colegio Único de Corredores Inmobiliarios (CUCICBA) y regula el ejercicio del corretaje inmobiliario o intermediación en la negociación inmobiliaria en la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, establece que para los casos de locación de inmuebles destinados a vivienda única, el monto máximo de la comisión a cobrar al inquilino, será el equivalente al cuatro, quince centésimos por ciento (4,15%) del valor total del respectivo contrato (artículo 57).
El CUCICBA el 27 de enero de 2016 emitió la Resolución n° 350 que determinó las tarifas a cobrar en concepto de honorarios de los corredores inmobiliarios por los trabajos que realicen a cargo de los cocontratantes. Esta Resolución en su artículo 1° (modificatorio del artículo 1 de la Resolución n° 300 -BOCABA 3890 del 12/04/2012-) reza:
“Los Corredores Inmobiliarios podrán fijar por contrato escrito celebrado con sus comitentes o con quienes resulten cocontratantes, el monto de sus honorarios y de los gastos, debiendo observar los usos, prácticas y costumbres imperantes, así como los límites impuestos por la buena fe, la moral y las buenas costumbres”.
A falta de estipulación expresa convenida por escrito, en los alquileres con destino a vivienda, la Resolución sugiere un arancel de entre un mes a dos meses de alquiler, lo que equivale a un máximo por arriba de los siete puntos porcentuales.
Esta Resolución expresa como fundamentos de la medida las introducciones realizadas por el Nuevo Código Civil y Comercial en la materia. Fundamentalmente cita los artículos 1255 y 1350 como disposiciones que le asignan prioridad a la libertad contractual y a la autonomía de la voluntad de las partes respecto al precio de los servicios y al monto de la comisión.
«ARTICULO 1255.- Precio. El precio se determina por el contrato, la ley, los usos o, en su defecto, por decisión judicial.
Las leyes arancelarias no pueden cercenar la facultad de las partes de determinar el precio de las obras o de los servicios. Cuando dicho precio debe ser establecido judicialmente sobre la base de la aplicación de dichas leyes, su determinación debe adecuarse a la labor cumplida por el prestador. Si la aplicación estricta de los aranceles locales conduce a una evidente e injustificada desproporción entre la retribución resultante y la importancia de la labor cumplida, el juez puede fijar equitativamente la retribución.
Si la obra o el servicio se ha contratado por un precio global o por una unidad de medida, ninguna de las partes puede pretender la modificación del precio total o de la unidad de medida, respectivamente, con fundamento en que la obra, el servicio o la unidad exige menos o más trabajo o que su costo es menor o mayor al previsto, excepto lo dispuesto en el artículo 1091″.
El artículo 1350 del mismo cuerpo jurídico, relativo al contrato de corretaje, dispone: “El corredor tiene derecho a la comisión estipulada si el negocio se celebra como resultado de su intervención. Si no hay estipulación, tiene derecho a la de uso en el lugar de celebración del contrato o, en su defecto, en el lugar en que principalmente realiza su cometido. A falta de todas ellas, la fija el juez”.
En fecha 6 de Mayo de 2016 el Juzgado Contencioso Administrativo y Tributario de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires N° 17 dictó sentencia en autos “Asociación Civil por la Igualdad y la Justicia y otros c/ Colegio Único de Corredores Inmobiliarios de la CABA s/ Amparo” (Expte. N° A2206-2016/0) ordenando como medida cautelar “Suspender en forma inmediata la Resolución CUCICBA N° 350/16. En consecuencia, los corredores inmobiliarios no podrán cobrar en concepto de comisión al inquilino de un inmueble con destino a vivienda un importe superior al 4,15% del valor total del respectivo contrato de acuerdo a lo dispuesto por la Ley N° 2340” (punto 1 de la parte dispositiva).
La acción de amparo promovida por la Asociación Civil por la Igualdad y la Justicia (ACIJ) representada por su apoderada y el señor Gervasio Muñoz, en su calidad de inquilino y de integrante de la agrupación Inquilinos Agrupados, persigue la nulidad de la Resolución 350/2016, logrando la determinación y el control por parte del Colegio Único de Corredores Inmobiliarios de los honorarios máximos fijados por la ley local 2.340, como normativa específica de la materia.
El Juez del Juzgado n° 17 luego de analizar la normativa en juego y citar los comentarios del Dr. Lorenzetti en relación al sentido de los artículos del nuevo Código Civil y Comercial invocados por el CUCICBA como fundamentos de la Resolución 350, concluyó que la citada Resolución es prima facie contraria no sólo al Código Civil y Comercial de la Nación –el cual deja a salvo lo establecido en la normativa local- sino también a la Ley Nº 2.340 la cual de forma inequívoca establece que no es competencia del Colegio Único de Corredores Inmobiliarios de la de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires fijar el monto correspondiente a cobrar en concepto de comisión al inquilino sino esta atribución es de la Legislatura de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, que aún no ha sido ejercida. Es decir, en virtud de la ley de creación de Colegio Único de Corredores Inmobiliarios de la de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires antes mencionada dicho ente público no estatal no tiene competencia para el dictado de la resolución aquí cuestionada ello, ya que la Ley Nº 2.340 no lo facultó expresamente a tal fin sino que, muy por el contrario la legislatura conservó su potestad para fijar los respectivos aranceles.
Por lo tanto suspendió en forma inmediata la Resolución CUCICBA N° 350/16 no pudiendo cobrar los corredores inmobiliarios en concepto de comisión al inquilino de un inmueble con destino a vivienda un importe superior al 4,15% del valor total del respectivo contrato de acuerdo a lo dispuesto por la Ley N° 2.340 y ordenó al CUCICBA a controlar a sus matriculados e imponer una multa de $20.000 por los incumplimientos acreditados, todo esto hasta tanto se dicte sentencia definitiva.
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