CSJN: “Recurso de hecho deducido por el Defensor Oficial de Alejandro Gutiérrez en la causa Gutiérrez, Alejandro s/ causa n° 11.960”

Con fecha 19 de febrero de 2015 la Corte Suprema de Justicia de la Nación hizo lugar -por mayoría- a la queja interpuesta contra el pronunciamiento dictado por la Sala II de la Cámara Federal de Casación Penal, que al hacer lugar al recurso interpuesto por la representación del Estado Nacional en las causas que se originen en el ámbito del Servicio Penitenciario Federal, revocó la decisión de la Sala I de la Cámara Nacional de Apelaciones en lo Criminal y Correccional, confirmatoria de la sentencia del Juzgado de Instrucción n° 38, que hiciera lugar al habeas corpus correctivo presentado por el interno Alejandro Gutiérrez.

Antecedentes

La sentencia de primera instancia hizo lugar al habeas corpus correctivo interpuesto por Alejandro Gutiérrez, interno de la Unidad n° 2 del Servicio Penitenciario Federal, por entender que se advertía un agravamiento en las condiciones de detención de los internos, a quienes consideraba susceptibles de riesgo actual e inminente en relación a su integridad física. En dicha sentencia se dispusieron las medidas que, dentro del plazo otorgado al efecto, debería implementar el Servicio Penitenciario Federal a fin poner coto a la situación lesiva de los derechos de las personas privadas de su libertad, de conformidad con lo planteado por el actor.

El tribunal a quo, hizo lugar al recurso de casación que oportunamente interpuso la representación del Estado Nacional y revocó la sentencia de la Cámara Nacional de Apelaciones en lo Criminal y Correccional que oportunamente confirmara la que hizo lugar al habeas corpus. Luego de aclarar que la acción era individual y no colectiva, justificó el temperamento adoptado sosteniendo la arbitrariedad de la sentencia que hizo lugar a esta acción, dado que, al no haber declarado el agravamiento de las condiciones de detención ni ordenado el cese de ningún acto lesivo, desnaturalizó el sentido de esta acción tal como está prevista en los arts. 3° -segundo párrafo- y 17 inciso 4°- de la ley 23.098. Y además de ello, puso inválidamente en cabeza del Servicio Penitenciario la realización de una serie de medidas en materia de seguridad carcelaria cuyo diseño y adopción eran privativos de este organismo.

Fundamentos de la CSJN

En primer lugar, la Corte consideró que le asiste razón “al apelante en cuanto sostiene que es arbitraria la descalificación que efectuó el fallo de lasentencia que hizo lugar al habeas corpus…, en cuanto sostuvo que aquélla había adoptado dicho temperamento pese a que no habría afirmado que las circunstancias fácticas allí discutidas y tenidas por configuradas implicaran el efectivo agravamiento de las condiciones de detención de los internos.”

Indicó que “la sentencia aquí recurrida debe ser descalificada por aplicación de la doctrina de la arbitrariedad puesto que el defecto de motivación que ella predicó de la decisión sometida a su revisión carece, en verdad, de absoluto correlato con lo efectivamente obrado en la causa, por lo que se verifica a su respecto una fundamentación sólo aparente, apoyada en conclusiones dogmáticas o inferencias sin sostén jurídico o fáctico, que no parece responder más que a la exclusiva voluntad de los jueces.”

“De este modo, el fallo consagra una concepción del alcance de la garantía fundamental del habeas corpus, y de las correlativas facultades judiciales para proveer, en ese marco, un remedio a las situaciones que ilegítimamente agravan las condiciones de detención de las personas, que no se condice con el que le ha otorgado la jurisprudencia de este Tribunal en la materia en cuanto ha sostenido que “es tarea de los jueces, .. velar porque el encarcelamiento se cumpla en forma acorde con los parámetros que establecen las leyes y las normas constitucionales, y ordenar, dado el caso, el cese de los actos u omisiones de la autoridad pública que … impliquen agravar ilegí timamente la forma y las condiciones de ejecución de la pena” (Fallos: 327:5658, énfasis agregado) y, en consonancia con ello, que “cuando una política es lesiva de derechos … siempre se argumenta en contra de la jurisdicción, alegando que en tales supuestos media una injerencia indebida del Poder Judicial en la política, cuando en realidad, lo único que ha ce el Poder Judicial, en su respectvo ámbito de competencia y con la prudencia debida en cada caso, es tutelar los derechos e invalidar esa política sólo en la medida en que los lesiona” (Fallos: 328:1146, considerando 27 del voto de la mayoría).”

En razón a esto último, también descalifica el fallo en cuestión en tanto que por el defecto de motivación indicado, se configuró un apartamiento a la citada jurisprudencia.

En relación al encuadre legal del caso, destacó que “no resultaba relevante que el a quo puntualizara que la acción de habeas corpus no era individual pues había sido efectuada por el interno a título personal”, y que por el contrario, lo verdaderamente decisivo era que “las circunstancias que motivaran la interposición de esta acción tenían incidencia colectiva y que, precisamente en aras de ponerles fin, la sentencia que le dio curso favorable debió disponer un remedio cuyo alcance, por la naturaleza del problema abordado, necesariamente excedía el individual.”

Concluye en que “el fallo carece de la debida fundamentación y, en tales condiciones y sin que ello implique abrir juicio sobre la resolución que en definitiva deba adoptarse sobre el fondo del asunto, ha de acogerse favorablemente el recurso.”

Por todo lo expuesto, resolvió hacer lugar a la queja, declarar procedente el recurso extraordinario, y dejar sin efecto la sentencia recurrida, ordenando la remisión de los autos al tribunal de origen a efectos del dictado de un nuevo fallo.

La Dra. Elena Highton de Nolasco votó en disidencia, considerando inadmisible el recurso extraordinario cuya denegación originó la queja (art. 280 del Código Procesal Civil y Comercial de la’ Nación), y por ello consideró procedencia su desestimación.

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