En el contexto del caso “Milagro Sala” la CSJN confirmó la inconstitucionalidad del art. 16 de la ley 27.120 que otorga a los parlamentarios del Parlasur las inmunidades de los diputados

La Corte Suprema de Justicia de la Nación confirmó la sentencia apelada por cuanto declaró la inconstitucionalidad del art. 16 de la ley 27.120 que otorga a los parlamentarios del Parlasur las inmunidades que la Constitución Nacional le confiere a los diputados nacionales.

La Sala II Penal del Superior Tribunal de Justicia de la Provincia de Jujuy había rechazado el recurso de inconstitucionalidad interpuesto por la defensa técnica de Milagro Amalia Ángela Sala contra la sentencia del Tribunal de Casación Penal que había denegado la impugnación planteada contra la decisión de la Cámara de Apelaciones y Control de esa provincia que, al desestimar la apelación deducida contra el rechazo de un planteo de nulidad, confirmando la orden de detención dictada el 26 de enero de 2016. En el mismo pronunciamiento, el superior tribunal provincial declaró la inconstitucionalidad del artículo 16 de la ley 27.120, lo que motivó la apelación de la defensa.

La cuestión a examinar por el máximo tribunal se circunscribía a decidir si Milagro Sala, en su condición de parlamentaria electa del Mercosur, goza de inmunidad de arresto en virtud de los instrumentos internacionales de ese ámbito comunitario y del artículo 69 de la Constitución Nacional en función de lo previsto en la ley 27.120.

Del análisis del texto mismo de las normas relacionadas, supranacionales surge que, en el marco de la relación descripta y sin distinción alguna, los parlamentarios del Parlasur “no podrán ser juzgados, civil o penalmente, en el territorio de los Estados Partes del MERCOSUR, en ningún momento, ni durante ni después de su mandato, por las opiniones y votos emitidos en el ejercicio de sus funciones” (artículo 12.2 del Protocolo Constitutivo del Parlamento del Mercosur -en adelante, PCPM-, aprobado por ley 26.146, y artículo 16 del Reglamento Interno del Parlamento del Mercosur -en adelante, RIPM-).

Es decir que el alcance de esa inmunidad de los parlamentarios, en pie de igualdad y frente a la jurisdicción de todos los Estados Partes, fue delineado con el límite de que da cuenta el artículo 12.2 de su Protocolo Constitutivo ratione causae (por las opiniones y votos emitidos en el ejercicio de sus funciones), ratione materiae (juzgamiento civil o penal) y ratione temporis (en todo momento, como así también durante y después de su mandato).

La Corte expresó que la “inmunidad de arresto” fue regulada, en los instrumentos internacionales que diseñaron el Parlamento del Mercosur, exclusivamente respecto de los legisladores comunitarios en su relación con el Estado sede del Parlamento, es decir, en el territorio de la República Oriental del Uruguay.

La Corte señaló que tampoco se encontraba afectada la prerrogativa conocida como “libertad de circulación” o “libertad de desplazamiento” de los parlamentarios de organismos regionales, que recoge el Protocolo Constitutivo y el Reglamento Interno. En efecto, se trata en el presente caso de la detención que fuera ordenada con fecha 26 de enero de 2016, de una parlamentaria electa -en los comicios del 25 de octubre de 2015-, que fue convocada el 15 de febrero de 2016 para la sesión del 14 de marzo del mismo año, por el presidente pro tempore del cuerpo regional. Es decir, que el Parlamento del Mercosur citó a sesiones a una parlamentaria electa que ya se encontraba previa-9- .mente detenida -en el marco de un proceso penal cuyo objeto resulta por completo ajeno a la labor parlamentaria- y cuyas credenciales aún no habían sido ratificadas.

De igual modo, al ser el “arresto” una medida de cautela personal dirigida a salvaguardar la buena marcha del “juzgamiento penal”, en tanto y en cuanto, al momento de tener lugar, no afecte ninguna “inmunidad, prerrogativa o exención” -supuesto que no se verifica en el presente caso- tampoco podría quedar alcanzada por las “restricciones legales” a las que alude la garantía de “libertad de circulación” o “libertad de desplazamiento”. Ello es así porque, de lo contrario, por vía del párrafo 3 se estaría también ampliando el alcance de la “inmunidad” contemplada en el párrafo 2, esta vez introduciendo una “inmunidad de arresto” no prevista que podría frustrar la eficacia de un “procedimiento penal” no alcanzado por inmunidad.

Debe partirse de la premisa de que, acorde con nuestro diseño constitucional, las inmunidades de proceso y de arresto son excepcionales y no pueden extenderse a supuestos que no fueron previstos en la Constitución Nacional.

Existe la facultad del Poder Legislativo de reglamentar aquellos supuestos de inmunidades que surgen de la Constitución, siempre que lo haga en la medida de sus competencias (artículo 75, inciso 32, Constitución Nacional) y dentro de los límites señalados por la Ley Suprema (artículo 28, Constitución Nacional).

En este contexto la Corte concluyó que el legislador no estaba constitucionalmente habilitado para otorgarle a los parlamentarios del Parlasur las inmunidades que la Constitución Nacional le confiere a los diputados nacionales.

“Sala, Milagro Amalia Ángela y otros s / p. s . a. asociación ilícita, fraude a la administración pública y extorsión”, CSJN, 5/12/17

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30 comentarios de “En el contexto del caso “Milagro Sala” la CSJN confirmó la inconstitucionalidad del art. 16 de la ley 27.120 que otorga a los parlamentarios del Parlasur las inmunidades de los diputados

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