Restricción de capacidad: la peculiar forma por la que optó un juez cordobés para explicar los fundamentos de su fallo

Para explicar los fundamentos de la declaración de restricción de la capacidad de una mujer para llevar adelante actos jurídicos propios, un magistrado optó por recurrir a un lenguaje acorde y especialmente orientado a la destinataria de la resolución en cuestión.

El juez a cargo del Juzgado en lo Civil, Comercial y de Familia de 4º Nominación de Villa María, Provincia de Córdoba, Alberto Ramiro Domenech, dispuso la restricción del pleno ejercicio de la capacidad jurídica de una mujer de 45 años por afectación de su salud mental. Asimismo, designó al padre como persona de apoyo a favor de la misma para la celebración de todos los actos jurídicos vinculados con ella.

La novedad radica en que, en pos de lograr la mejor comunicación de lo decidido a esta persona con discapacidad, el magistrado introdujo en la sentencia párrafos en formato de “fácil lectura”, destinados directamente a la destinataria de la resolución.

Por medio de un lenguaje sencillo, el juez le explicó a la mujer en cuestión (M. P. F.) aquello que motivaba la decisión y los pasos que se habían seguido. “De los papeles tuyos, y de tus cosas más importantes, se va a encargar tu papá, A. S. P., pero siempre te va a preguntar primero qué es lo que vos querés”, manifestó.

Luego de informarle dónde sería internada y de que allí podrían visitarla sus familiares (padres, hija y nieta que M. P. F. tiene), el magistrado le dijo: “Si necesitás algo, se lo podés pedir a la gente del hogar, a tu papá, y a tus familiares. También, si querés, podés pedir hablar con una abogada o un abogado, o con el juez, si tenés alguna duda con esta carpeta”.

Lenguaje adaptado al destinatario
En el momento de fundamentar por qué había recurrido a este inédito formato, el juez subrayó que, de acuerdo con la Convención sobre los Derechos de las Personas con Discapacidad (con jerarquía constitucional en la Argentina), “existe un mandato y compromiso internacional de promover y proteger la autonomía, y la dignidad y plena integración en la sociedad de las personas con discapacidad”. En ese sentido, se “establece que la ‘comunicación” (dirigida a las personas con discapacidad) incluirá los lenguajes, la visualización de textos, en medios y formatos de fácil acceso (art. 2 de la Convención)”.

En la misma dirección, destacó las “Normas Uniformes sobre la igualdad de oportunidades para las personas con discapacidad” (aprobadas por la Asamblea General de Naciones Unidas en 1994), que fijan la obligación de los estados de “hacer accesible la información y documentación para las personas con discapacidad, bajo un lenguaje simple y directo que evite los tecnicismos, abstracciones y elaboraciones complejas (art. 5, inciso b)”. Asimismo, las Reglas de Brasilia sobre Acceso a la Justicia de las Personas en Condición de Vulnerabilidad (2008) instan a “garantizar la accesibilidad de las personas con discapacidad al sistema de justicia, incluyendo aquellas medidas conducentes (…) que garanticen su (…) comprensión y comunicación”.

Examen interdisciplinario
Mientras tanto, en la parte de la sentencia en formato tradicional, el magistrado esgrimió que, del examen interdisciplinario practicado a M. F. P., surgía que, a raíz de un accidente de tránsito (2007), la mujer padece “traumatismo craneoencefálico, deterioro cognitivo (con cambios de conducta), deterioro motor, ataxia, praxia y epilepsia traumática”. “Se indica, como valoración médica, que M. F. P. es una persona vigil, sin lucidez, que no está orientada en tiempo y espacio, con enlentecimiento de su conducta psicomotriz, y que presenta sus funciones cognitivas (memoria, atención, inteligencia, etc.) disminuidas”, afirmó.

El juez también tuvo en cuenta que, luego del accidente, se dificultó la convivencia entre M. F. P. y su grupo familiar (padre, madre, e hija) “por su alto grado de agresividad e irritabilidad, lo que provocaba un alto monto de angustia en la familia”, que imposibilitaba su cuidado. “Se agrega, como conclusión interdisciplinaria: incapacidad para dirigir su persona, realizar actos jurídicos y disponer de bienes, y necesidad de asistencia de terceros responsables para su cuidado y disposición de sus bienes. Se indica que la patología es crónica (permanente) e irreversible. Se indica que se sugiere su internación, bajo cuidados permanente de terceros, con apoyo psiquiátrico y psicológico permanente y periódico (neuropsiquiátrico). No se recomienda una internación domiciliaria”, manifestó.

Revisión cada tres años
Como consecuencia, el magistrado consideró que resultaba pertinente el pedido de los padres de M. P. F. (actualmente internada en un centro de la tercera edad) de que se declarara que, en virtud de padecer una patología crónica, definitiva e irreversible, que afecta su autonomía personal, la mujer “se encuentra restringida en su capacidad para dirigir su persona, realizar actos jurídicos y de disposición de bienes, y necesita de la asistencia de terceros responsables para el cuidado y disposición de sus bienes” (según arts. 32, 38 y concordantes del Código Civil y Comercial). El requerimiento contaba con la opinión favorable de la curadora provisional y de la Asesora Letrada.

Asimismo, teniendo en cuenta los nuevos paradigmas vigentes en materia de discapacidad, “basados en la promoción y protección de la autonomía, la dignidad y la plena integración en la sociedad” y reconocidos por los tratados internacionales suscriptos por la Argentina, el juez concluyó que dentro de tres años (o antes, a petición de parte interesada) debía revisarse nuevamente la declaración, mediante una nueva evaluación interdisciplinaria, en función de lo previsto por el nuevo CCC.

Fecha: 12 de mayo de 2017.
Causa: “P., M. F. – Demanda de limitación a la capacidad”.


Fuente: www.justiciacordoba.gob.ar

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