En caso de oposición, para que el traslado del centro de vida de un menor sea “legítimo”, debe solicitarse autorización judicial

Una mujer que, sin dar razones y sin contar con la autorización del padre, había cambiado la residencia del hijo en común, deberá reestablecerlo a su centro de vida, ubicado en  una ciudad del departamento Tercero Arriba. Así lo decidió el juzgado en lo Civil, Comercial, Conciliación y Familia de 1º Nominación de Río Tercero. Para así decidir, se consideró que el cambio operado sin razones suficientes y sin contar con autorización alguna, en casos de relaciones parentales judicializadas, resulta insoslayable.

 

Asimismo, se rechazó el planteo formulado por la mujer, que pretendía que la jueza declinara su competencia para entender en la causa debido al cambio de residencia operado. Sobre el particular se especificó que para que se hiciera operativa la previsión del Código Civil y Comercial (CCC) de que es competente el juez donde el niño tiene su centro de vida, el cambio de residencia debía responder a razones legítimas, cosa que no se advertía en el presente caso.

En la resolución, se subrayó que dicho requisito “tiende a proteger justamente a los niños de traslados ilegítimos de los progenitores; es decir, que vulneren sus derechos y/o los del otro progenitor, ya sea para evitar o perjudicar el contacto o comunicación con este, o para vulnerar el régimen comunicacional o las visitas al no restituir al niño al progenitor que ejerce –por acuerdo o decisión judicial- la guarda o cuidado personal”.

Oposición del progenitor 
En esa dirección, se precisó que, si bien no resulta necesaria la previa autorización para trasladar el domicilio en forma permanente dentro del país, si media la oposición de uno de los progenitores, el otro debe “solicitar la autorización judicial, sin que sea válido el traslado sin dicha autorización (art. 642 del CCC)”.

En ese sentido “la progenitora sólo ha aludido a razones de ‘seguridad’ para la mutación de la residencia de ella y de su hijo menor, F. J., sin mayores argumentos ni prueba, que desmerezcan la justificación de la oposición efectuada por el progenitor”. “No se han esgrimido argumentos laborales, afectivos o sociales, peligros o beneficios que evidencien motivos sustanciales para la mutación del ‘centro de vida’ del niño. En este contexto, la oposición del progenitor a la mutación del domicilio, y por ende del centro de vida, resulta justificada, toda vez que se encuentra litigando desde el año 2014 el restablecimiento del contacto con su hijo, que por diversas circunstancias le ha sido privado”.

La madre obstaculizaba la revinculación del niño con su madre 
Al propio tiempo, se dispuso “un régimen de revinculación y restablecimiento del contacto paterno-filial”, en atención a los “numerosos los acontecimientos que obstaculizaron” tal desarrollo, “muchos de ellos causados por la reticencia de la progenitora a cumplir en debida forma las órdenes del tribunal tendientes a lograr dicha revinculación, todo lo cual hace presumir que la mudanza de domicilio no es más que otra maniobra obstructiva en la relación que ese intenta reconstruir con el progenitor no conviviente”.

En definitiva, se concluyó que no cabían dudas de que el “centro de vida del niño” se encontraba situado en la localidad del departamento Tercero Arriba, “donde no sólo se encuentra su familia (su hermana), sus afectos, sino que además era el lugar donde tenía contención psicopedagógica y hasta la posibilidad cierta de lograr una revinculación con su progenitor”.

Como consecuencia de ello, se dispuso que el traslado del centro de vida del niño era ilegítimo, atento a que no ha mediado autorización del progenitor, a la “falta de acreditación de razones de índole suficiente para mudar su residencia” y a “la ausencia total, por parte de la progenitora, de garantías de la continuidad del régimen de revinculación ordenado por el tribunal”.

Obligaciones impuestas a la madre 
A raíz de ello, en aras del interés superior del niño, que goza de jerarquía constitucional, se ordenó la restitución del pequeño a su “centro de vida” (en la localidad de Tercero Arriba en la que vivía) una vez que termine el presente ciclo lectivo en la escuela a la que concurre en una ciudad del departamento San Javier; esto, siempre que la madre “garantice el debido contacto del niño con su progenitor durante el tiempo que transcurriere hasta la restitución del niño a su centro de vida, bajo apercibimiento de considerarla incursa en una causal que pueda considerarse grave a los fines de la suspensión del cuidado personal unilateral de la que es titular”.

Asimismo, la jueza dispuso que ambos progenitores sean sometidos a pericias psicológicas a los fines de constatar si se encuentran aptos para, en el caso de la madre, mantener el cuidado personal unilateral, sin influenciar la revinculación del niño con su progenitor, y en el segundo, para determinar si están dadas las condiciones “para proseguir la revinculación con su hijo”. Al mismo tiempo, ambos fueron emplazados “a iniciar o, en su caso, continuar tratamiento psicológico para superar conflictos individuales que puedan poner en riesgo la salud psicofísica del niño F. J.”.

Causa: “S., R. R. c/R., M. E. – Régimen de Visitas/Alimentos- Contencioso”.

 

Requisitos para que el traslado del “centro de vida” de un niño sea legítimo. Si media la oposición del otro progenitor, hay que solicitar autorización judicial.

 Fuente: www.justiciacordoba.gob.ar

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