La CSJN declaró la competencia de un tribunal donde se encuentra la entidad bancaria en el contexto de un robo por homebanking

Síntesis.- Se declara la competencia de un tribunal de Bahía Blanca en la causa por el robo a un cliente de un banco por la plataforma de home banking, en tanto si bien la cuenta bancaria de la que se dispusieron los fondos, y la transferencia por medio de internet se encuentran en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, el magistrado local es el que se encuentra en mejores condiciones para continuar con la causa, en atención a que en su ámbito territorial se encuentra la entidad a la que se transfirió el capital y se domicilia su titular.

Eden, Alejandro R. s/Denuncia, C.S.J.N., 18/10/16

A continuación el fallo completo

Procuración General de la Nación

Suprema Corte:

La presente contienda negativa de competencia trabada entre los titulares del Juzgado Nacional en lo Criminal de Instrucción N° 20 Y del Juzgado de Garantías N° 4 del departamento judicial de Bahía Blanca, provincia de Buenos Aires, se originó en la causa iniciada a partir de la denuncia de Alejandro Raúl E En ella refirió que personas desconocidas ingresaron mediante la plataforma de home banking a su cuenta del Banco Galicia y efectuaron una transferencia por diecisiete mil trescientos pesos, a la sucursal de esa entidad sita en la ciudad de Bahía Blanca, a nombre de Fernando Carlos M El magistrado nacional declinó su competencia al considerar que la maniobra se habría consumado en territorio provincial (fs. 40/41).

Por su parte, la juez local rechazó tal atribución por entender que la disposición patrimonial habría ocurrido en esta ciudad (fs. 46/47).

Vuelto el legajo al tribunal de origen, su titular mantuvo la postura oportunamente sustentada, tuvo por trabada la contienda y la elevó a conocimiento de la Corte (fs. 48).

Soy de la opinión que la contienda debería resolverse atendiendo a razones de economía procesal y teniendo en cuenta los distintos lugares donde se desarrollaron actos con relevancia típica (Fallos: 329:1905).

En esta inteligencia, más allá de que la cuenta bancaria de la que se dispusieron los fondos se encuentra en esta ciudad, donde además se habría accedido a internet para efectuar la transferencia, entiendo que corresponde declarar la competencia ·del magistrado local pues es el que se encuentra en mejores condiciones para continuar con la causa, en atención a que en su ámbito territorial se encuentra la entidad a la que se transfirió el capital (fs. 38) y se domicilia su titular (fs. 32), sumado a la circunstancia de que en la fecha en la que se efectuó la operación se registran en el extracto bancario numerosas entradas de dinero mediante el sistema de home banking (ver fs. 37).

Buenos Aires, 7 de Junio de 2016.-

Eduardo E. Casal

Corte Suprema de Justicia de la Nación.

Buenos Aires, 18 de Octubre de 2016.-

Por los fundamentos y conclusiones del dictamen del señor Procurador Fiscal a los que corresponde remitirse en razón de brevedad, se declara que deberá entender en la causa en la que se originó el presente incidente el Juzgado de Garantías n°4 del Departamento Judicial de Bahía Blanca, Provincia de Buenos Aires, al que se le remitirá. Hágase saber al Juzgado Nacional en lo Criminal de Instrucción n° 20.

Ricardo L. Lorenzetti – Elena I. Highton de Nolasco – Juan C. Maqueda

 

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