Especificaciones de la Cámara en materia de caducidad de instancia y actos interruptivos

La Sala B de la Cámara Nacional de Apelaciones en lo Civil, en ocasión de resolver un recurso de apelación contra el acto que declaró la caducidad de instancia del caso, por considerar el recurrente la existencia de actividad impulsiva con anterioridad a la notificación del acuse de caducidad de instancia en tanto había solicitado el dictado de resolución sobre consignación de llaves, especificó que son interruptivos del curso de la caducidad de la instancia aquellos actos o peticiones que activan el procedimiento haciéndolo avanzar hacia su destino final, la sentencia, debiendo tratarse de peticiones útiles y adecuadas al estado de la causa, que guarden directa relación con la marcha normal del proceso. Por lo que las diligencias o pedidos que no hacen avanzar la causa, que no la sacan del estancamiento en que puede hallarse sumida y que no sirven para que el proceso se dinamice, no son actos que interrumpen el plazo de caducidad de la instancia. En consecuencia,  la solicitud de resolución sobre consignación de llaves en el caso, no es un acto que provoque el avance del proceso, por lo que no interrumpe el plazo de caducidad de instancia.

Fernandez, Fernando G. y Otro c/Salas, Hector M. s/Consignación de LLaves, Cámara Nacional de Apelaciones en lo Civil, Sala B, 31-08-2016.

Texto completo del fallo

Cámara Nacional de Apelaciones en lo Civil – Sala B, 17 de agosto de 2016.

I. Contra el pronunciamiento obrante a fs. 52/vta., mediante el cual el juez de grado decretó la caducidad de instancia en este proceso, la parte actora interpuso recurso de apelación a f. 54. Fue concedido a f. 55 y fundado a fs. 58/59. La respuesta luce a fs. 66/67vta.

El quejoso alega que existió actividad impulsiva con anterioridad a la notificación del acuse de caducidad de instancia. Sostiene que con fecha 26 de agosto de 2015 ha solicitado se dicte resolución en este proceso sobre consignación de llaves. Asimismo, manifiesta que el mismo juzgador en los autos conexos “Salas Hétor María c/ Fernández Fernando s/ Ejecución de Alquileres” (expte. 82519/2013) dispuso la suspensión de los plazos en el proceso antes indicado, debiéndose dictar una sentencia única, junto con estas actuaciones.

II. Sabido es que la perención de instancia no opera de pleno derecho. Por lo tanto, el transcurso de los plazos previstos en el artículo 310 del Código Procesal, sin la realización de ningún acto tendiente al impulso de las actuaciones, requiere además de la correspondiente resolución judicial que así lo declare.

Esa decisión no puede tener lugar de oficio una vez que cualquiera de las partes haya impulsado el procedimiento (conf. art. 316 C.P.C.C.N.), en tanto que la interesada en obtener por esta vía la extinción del proceso debe interponer el pedido respectivo antes de consentir el acto de impulso efectuado con posterioridad al vencimiento del plazo legal (conf. art. 315 C.P.C.C.N.). Dicho consentimiento se produce, de manera tácita, de no articularse el planteo de perención dentro de los cinco días del conocimiento de tal actuación (conf. esta sala, R. 191.678 del 11.4.96).

El acto procesal, para interrumpir la caducidad, tiene que resultar idóneo y específico para activar el proceso, innovar con relación a lo ya actuado. La idoneidad que se requiere para interrumpir el curso de la perención debe ser específica y difiere de la idoneidad general de los actos procesales. Su especificidad es la de servir para que el proceso o la instancia avance hacia su fin natural (conf. Podetti, “Tratado de los actos procesales” TII págs. 366 y 188).

Las diligencias o pedidos que no hacen avanzar la causa, que no la sacan del estancamiento en que puede hallarse sumida, que no sirven para que el proceso se dinamice no son actos interruptivos del plazo de caducidad de la instancia (conf. C.N.Civ Sala A Expte. 261962 del 17/3/1999).

Por ello son interruptivos del curso de la caducidad de la instancia aquellos actos o peticiones que activan el procedimiento haciéndolo avanzar hacia su destino final, la sentencia, debiendo tratarse de peticiones útiles y adecuadas al estado de la causa, que guarden directa relación con la marcha normal del proceso (conf. Fenochietto-Arazi “Código Procesal Comentado” T.2 pag.27); es decir, deben tender al desarrollo de las actuaciones, con prescindencia del resultado o eficacia de tal actuación o pedido (conf. Fassi Yañez “Cod. Proc, Comentado) T.2 pág. 662).

Ello es así pues la perención supone el abandono voluntario del proceso por los litigantes, por lo que para interrumpirla se debe concretar el interés en su prosecución a través de actuaciones que gocen de una eventual aptitud de impulso, esto es que tiendan a innovar respecto de la situación procesal preexistente, alejándolo del acto inicial y acercándolo, objetivamente, al acto final o resolución (CNCiv. Y Com. Fed Sala IV del 30/12/94 L.L. 26/5/95; id. Cam. Civ.Sala B  R.270.982 del 26/5/99).

III. Analizadas a la luz de estos principios las constancias de autos, habrá de confirmarse la resolución de fs. 52/vta., en tanto se aprecia que desde el último acto impulsivo realizado con fecha 3 de diciembre de 2014 (ver f.42), en virtud del cual la Prosecretaria hace saber al solicitante que el mandamiento diligenciado, ya estaba incorporado a las actuaciones a fs. 35/38, hasta el acuse de caducidad obrante a fs. 43/vta., el 20 de agosto de 2015, transcurrió el plazo previsto en el art. 310, inc. 1°) del Código Procesal, sin que se registre acto de impulso idóneo a los fines de hacer avanzar la instancia hacia su finalidad específica.

Los actos indicados en el memorial de fs. 58/59 no revisten naturaleza interruptiva del curso de la caducidad de instancia. Es que carecen de operatividad para hacer avanzar el trámite hacia la consecución de su principal objetivo.

En efecto, la petición de f. 45, se ha efectuado con posterioridad al planteo de caducidad de instancia formulado a fs. 43/vta. Por lo tanto la alegada notificación posterior al escrito indicado en primer término, carece de relevancia pues la cuestión ya estaba planteada en autos y así se puso de manifiesto en el proveído de f. 46, última parte. En cuanto al hecho de que el quejoso se hubiera notificado de manera espontánea del acuse de caducidad, no tiene relevancia alguna, siempre que la notificación de aquella se hubiera practicado de manera oportuna, situación que consta en autos.

IV. Con relación a la alegada suspensión de plazos en el expediente conexo, cabe aclarar que los plazos corren de manera independiente para cada una de las actuaciones judiciales en trámite, haya o no conexidad entre ellas. Por lo tanto, lo que se haya dispuesto en el proceso conexo, no proyecta efectos sobre las presentes actuaciones, que tramitan de manera autónoma y sólo comparte el dictado de una sentencia única con el mentado proceso (art. 194, C.P.C.C.).

A mayor abundamiento diremos que a fs. 31/vta. con fecha 21 de octubre de 2014, se solicitó la reanudación del trámite de estas actuaciones. Al respecto se proveyó a f. 32, último párrafo que debía estarse al resultado del mandamiento de constatación ordenado en esa misma resolución.

Dicha pieza de autos fue agregada a fs. 35/38 y se hizo saber esa circunstancia a f. 40, con fecha 1° de diciembre de 2014. A ello se suma la providencia dictada a f. 42, con fecha 3 de diciembre de ese mismo año. Desde entonces no surge acto impulsivo alguno a cargo de la parte interesada, dentro del plazo previsto en la ya alegada norma procesal, hasta el planteo de caducidad de instancia de f. 43, efectuado el 20 de agosto de 2015.

A la luz de estos fundamentos, forzoso es concluir que los agravios expresados por el recurrente a fs. 58/59 deben ser desestimados.

V. Las costas de la alzada se impondrán a la parte vencida (conf. arts. 68 y 69 del CPCC).

Por los fundamentos expresados, el Tribunal RESUELVE: confirmar la resolución de fs. 52/vta. Con costas al apelante vencido (arts. 68 y 69 CPCC).

Regístrese y publíquese. Cumplido, devuélvase, encomendándose la notificación de la presente a la instancia de grado junto con la recepción de estas actuaciones (art. 135, inc. 7, C.P.C.C.)

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