La Corte dejó sin efecto la condena a prisión perpetua impuesta a una mujer, considerando que en el caso no existió una revisión integral y exhaustiva del fallo apelado

La Corte Suprema de Justicia de la Nación resolvió dejar sin efecto la condena impuesta a prisión perpetua dictada contra una mujer, que padecía violencia de género, como coautora del homicidio de su hijo de dos años, considerando que el a quo omitió analizar agravios conducentes para la correcta resolución del asunto, lo que en el caso implicó que no se cumpliera con la revisión integral y exhaustiva del fallo condenatorio. En consecuencia, se concluyó en que el fallo recurrido carece de la debida fundamentación y, en tales condiciones, procede acoger favorablemente el recurso interpuesto a fin de que se asegure la revisión integral, exhaustiva y amplia del fallo condenatorio.

C. M. A. del V. y Otro s/Homicidio Calificado, Corte Suprema de Justicia de la Nación, 23-08-2016.

Texto completo del fallo

Corte Suprema de Justicia de la Nación. 

Buenos Aires, 23 de Agosto de 2016.-

Considerando:

10) Que, en lo que aquí interesa, la Cámara en lo Criminal de Cuarta Nominación de la ciudad de Córdoba resolvió condenar a Paola Azucena Cejas como coautora del delito de homicidio agravado por el vínculo y le impuso la pena de prisión perpetua. Contra tal decisión, la defensa de la nombrada interpuso un recurso de casación, que fue rechazado por el superior tribunal de justicia local. Ello motivó la presentación del recurso extraordinario cuya denegación originó esta queja.

2°) Que en el recurso extraordinario la defensa oficial de Paola Azucena Cejas se agravió de la falta de revisión integral del fallo condenatorio, alegando, asimismo, que el fallo presenta serios vicios de fundamentación que lo descalifican como acto jurisdiccional.

3°) Que el recurso extraordinario interpuesto resulta formalmente procedente, ya que la sentencia impugnada reviste carácter de definitiva y pone fin al pleito. Además, proviene del tribunal superior de la causa y suscita cuestión federal suficiente, toda vez que se debate la observancia otorgada al derecho del imputado a recurrir la sentencia condenatoria, consagrado por el arto 8.2.h de la Convención Americana sobre Derechos Humanos que forma parte de la Constitución Nacional, a partir de su inclusión en el arto 75, inc. 22 de la Ley Fundamental, a la par que se denuncia violación a la garantía de defensa en juicio protegida en el arto 18 de la Constitución Nacional por mediar arbitrariedad en lo resuelto. Finalmente, existe relación directa e inmediata entre los agravios constitucionales incoados y el pronunciamiento impugnado, y la decisión es contraria al derecho federal invocado por el recurrente.

En virtud de lo antedicho, el tratamiento resulta pertinente por la vía establecida en el arto 14 de la Ley Nº 48.

4o) Que esta Corte entiende que asiste razón a la apelante en cuanto alega que en la sentencia cuestionada, mediante una fundamentación contradictoria, se eludió responder a su planteo relacionado a que: (a) no existía prueba de que su asistida hubiera realizado acciones que causaran el resultado muerte, que la prueba testimonial producida en el debate demostraba que su pareja era quien tenía una personalidad agresiva y que Cejas podía solo ser tenida como partícipe primaria con base en la omisión de actuar en resguardo de su hijo y (b) que, a este respecto, correspondía considerar que concurrían circunstancias extraordinarias de atenuación (art. 80 in fine del Código Penal) en atención a que, según alegara se comprobara en el debate, Cejas, quien se encontraba en particular situación de vulnerabilidad, habría sido víctima de violencia de género y fue precisamente en virtud de este extremo que no pudo actuar para evitar que su pareja golpeara a su hijo y le causara la muerte.

5°) Que esto es así por cuanto el a qua rechazó analizar el agravio sintetizado precedentemente en primer término argumentando que no existía interés directo para la casacionista en que se determinara si Cejas había actuado u omitido actuar y si correspondía ser tenida como partícipe primaria y no como coautora porque “aún aceptando la calificación legal sugerida … no se avizora cómo ello redundaría en beneficio para su asistida.

Ello así, desde que la mutación pretendida tendría incidencia en la medida que pudiera repercutir en la gradación de individualización de la pena, empero siendo que el delito por el que se la condenó … prevé una pena fija … la autoría y la complicidad primaria tienen la misma escala penal, por lo que su cambio no tendría aparejado ventaja alguna; para luego, seguidamente, justificar no tratar el segundo agravio vinculado a la concurrencia de circunstancias extraordinarias de atenuación que permitían imponer una pena temporal sosteniendo que “la estrategia recursiva podría en todo caso ser eficaz, si a la imputada Cejas se le hubiera achacado solo una conducta omisiva …” (cf. fs. 942/973) .

De este modo, se concluye que el a qua se negó inválidamente a tratar los planteas efectuados por la recurrente para poner en crisis una sentencia que la condenó a una pena de prisión perpetua. Ello así porque afirmó que carecía de interés el cuestionamiento por el que se sostenía que el reproche solo podía fundarse en la omisión en que habría incurrido Cejas, para luego rechazar tratar el segundo agravio ~que demostraba precisamente el interés cuya existencia antes negara-, invocando que no se verificaba el supuesto de conducta omisiva -cuya configuración se había negado previamente a analizar por considerarlo insustancial- que hubiera justificado determinar la concurrencia en el caso de las circunstancias extraordinarias de atenuación que la recurrente invocara.

De este modo, se colige que, con apoyo en argumentos contradictorios basados en premisas argumentales que se neutralizan mutuamente, el a quo ha omitido analizar agravios conducentes para la correcta resolución del asunto (Fallos: 303:386; 306:1395; 307:1875; 311:512; 326:3734; 330:4983, entre muchos otros), lo que implicó, en definitiva, que no se cumpliera con la revisión integral y exhaustiva del fallo condenatorio en los términos establecidos en el precedente “Casal” (Fallos: 328:3399) .

Por lo que, en consecuencia, el fallo recurrido carece de la debida fundamentación y, en tales condiciones, ha de acogerse favorablemente el recurso a fin de que se asegure la revisión integral, exhaustiva y amplia del fallo condenatorio.

Por ello, se hace lugar a la queja, se declara procedente el recurso extraordinario y se deja sin efecto la resolución recurrida. Vuelvan los autos al tribunal de origen para que por quien corresponda se dicte el nuevo fallo. Hágase saber, acumulese la queja al principal y remitase.

Ricardo L. Lorenzetti – Elena I. Highton de Nolasco – Juan C. Maqueda.

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