Consternación en el sector de la construcción por el proyecto de ley de blanqueo

-Por Florencia Miconi-

El sector de la construcción, especialmente el abocado al desarrollo de obras privadas, está expresando su preocupación y sorpresa frente al conocimiento del texto, del Proyecto de Ley elevado por el P.E.N. en el día de ayer al Congreso de la Nación; en particular, por lo dispuesto en su Libro II “Régimen de Sinceramiento Fiscal”, Título I “Sistema voluntario y excepcional de declaración de tenencia de moneda nacional, extranjera y demás bienes en el país y en el exterior”.

A pesar de ser la actividad que más puestos de trabajo directos e indirectos genera en el país; la construcción ha sido el sector más golpeado en el último tiempo, producto de un párate generalizado en las obras y ventas, sumado a un crecimiento exorbitante de los costos. Los actores esperaban un paliativo con el anunciado blanqueo de capitales, por el cual se diera a la actividad el impulso necesario para superar la crisis; pero ello no ocurrió.

Llamativamente, el proyecto enviado al Congreso no ha incluido ninguna tasa diferencial para la inversión en inmuebles. Dicha tasa, existió en otros blanqueos (nacionales y extranjeros), y estaba incluida, a un porcentual idéntico al de los títulos públicos, en un primer borrador que circuló hace unos meses.

Contrariamente, el Proyecto del P.E.N. fija una tasa única (que sólo varía según el monto y carácter del bien a exteriorizar), sin importar a qué se destine la suma exteriorizada, e incluso sea que ésta se deje en el país o en el exterior (art. 39); contemplando sólo dos excepciones para las cuales se fija el blanqueo a costo cero (arts. 39 y 40): 1) la inversión en determinados títulos públicos y, 2) la adquisición de cuotas partes en fondos comunes de inversión que se destinen a la economía real. En ambos casos, los activos quedaran inmovilizados por un tiempo prolongado (en el caso de los fondos, por cinco años). Asimismo, para quienes exterioricen divisas en efectivo en el país depositándolas en una entidad financiera, también se exige que aquellas permanezcan depositadas por seis meses o hasta el 31 de marzo de 2017, lo que sea mayor (art. 42).

Lo descripto plantea un escenario sumamente adverso para las empresas dedicadas a la obra privada; especialmente para pymes, operarios, profesionales (arquitectos, martilleros, ingenieros), gremios, proveedores, transportistas y, tantos otros actores de la sociedad que dependen de la industria de la construcción. No puede soslayarse que, si bien las obras públicas que se han anunciado habrán de generar empleo; el crecimiento genuino (en propias palabras del Presidente de la Nación), se logra a través de la inversión privada y, especialmente, a través de nuestras Pymes, que en el caso de la construcción generan miles de puestos de trabajo a diario.

Es extraño que el anunciado blanqueo, en vez de utilizarse como una herramienta para dar estímulo directo a los verdaderos sectores productivos del país; fomente la inversión en grandes operadores financieros, que luego elegirán a discreción en qué proyectos de la economía real invertir.

Deseamos que el Congreso, en pos de lograr una ley más ecuánime, justa y positiva para la economía en su conjunto; modifique el Proyecto enviado por el P.E.N., permitiendo a cada ahorrista individual elegir en qué proyecto inmobiliario quiere invertir sus activos. En tal sentido, proponemos de lege ferenda que la ley contemple el mismo beneficio para quienes, en vez de invertir en un Fondo Común de Inversión, inviertan directamente sus activos en la compra de inmuebles en construcción, conservando su titularidad por cinco años como lo exige el artículo 40 para el primer supuesto.

Ver proyecto completo


Referencias de la autora

Abogada (UCA). Magister en derecho empresario (Universidad Austral), con Medalla de Oro. Distinción por la Tesis de Dogmática Jurídica “Industria de la construcción. Régimen de responsabilidad en el contrato de locación de obra. Ruina total y parcial. Vicios aparentes y ocultos”, otorgada por la Universidad Austral en la Maestría de Derecho Empresario. Autora de diversos artículos de doctrina. Actualmente se desempeña como profesional independiente.

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