Los fundamentos dados por la Cámara Federal de Casación Penal para sustentar la denegatoria de la excarcelación solicitada en favor de Lázaro Baez

Báez, Lázaro s/Lavado de Activos, Cámara Federal de Casación Penal, Sala IV, 4/5/2016.

SINTESIS. Entre los fundamentos para el rechazo del pedido de excarcelación solicitado por el empresario se encuentra la consideración de que tiempo que lleva privado de su libertad (un mes aproximadamente) no luce irrazonable a la luz de lo previsto en el art. 1 de la ley 24.390, debiendo ponderarse además el delito que se le imputa (lavado de activos, previsto en el art. 303 del Código Penal), la naturaleza económica del ilícito, y el monto involucrado, extremo este último que demuestra la disposición de dinero con la que cuenta el acusado, y la consiguiente posibilidad de manejar mayores relaciones económicas e influencias que en el expediente se imputan como delitos que se denunciaron como llevados a cabo al amparo de las estructuras de poder en torno al Estado, destacándose las sospechas de actuación irregular por parte de funcionarios de la DGI, la PROCELAC y la Policía de Seguridad Aeroportuaria.

Texto completo del fallo

 

Cámara Federal de Casación Penal – Sala IV, 4 de mayo de 2016.

I. Que con fecha 14/4/2016, la Sala II de la Cámara Nacional de Apelaciones en lo Criminal y Correccional Federal de esta ciudad, en cuanto aquí interesa, resolvió confirmar el decisorio del juez de grado que resolvió no hacer lugar a la excarcelación solicitada en favor de Lázaro Antonio BAEZ (fs. 44/46 vta.).

II. Que contra dicha decisión, la defensa interpuso el recurso de casación en estudio, el que fue concedido a fs. 72 y vta.

Considerando:

Los Dres. Mariano H. Borinsky y Juan C. Gemignani dijeron:

Que en el sub judice la defensa no ha logrado demostrar la existencia de un agravio federal debidamente fundado que habilite la jurisdicción de esta Cámara Federal de Casación Penal conforme la doctrina sentada en los precedentes “Di Nunzio”, “Durán Sáenz” y “Piñeiro” (Fallos 328:1108; 328:4551; 333:677, respectivamente), sino que se ha limitado a cuestionar una fundamentación que no se comparte sin efectuar una crítica concreta y razonada de los argumentos dados por el Tribunal a quo en el pronunciamiento que confirmó el rechazo de la excarcelación solicitada en favor de Lázaro Antonio BAEZ, el cual se ajustó a los parámetros establecidos por esta Cámara Federal de Casación Penal en el plenario “Díaz Bessone”.

Asimismo, al encontrarse esta Cámara Federal de Casación Penal limitada al examen de cuestiones de carácter federal oportunamente invocadas, la resolución de la Sala II de la Cámara Nacional de Apelaciones en lo Criminal y Correccional Federal de esta ciudad ha satisfecho el “derecho al recurso” reconocido en el art. 8.2.h de la C.A.D.H. y en el precedente “Herrera Ulloa vs. Costa Rica”, Serie C Nº 107 dictado por la C.I.D.H.; ello, aún respecto de una medida esencialmente provisional, como el encarcelamiento preventivo.

Por último, cabe tener en cuenta que el tiempo que Lázaro Antonio BAEZ lleva privado de su libertad (desde el 5/4/2016) no luce irrazonable a la luz de lo previsto en el art. 1 de la Ley Nº 24.390, como así también del delito que se le imputa (lavado de activos, previsto en el art. 303 del C.P.). Siendo que, además, el tribunal a quo tuvo en cuenta la amenaza de pena en abstracto que prevé el delito reprochado a BAEZ; la naturaleza económica del ilícito y el monto involucrado y no recuperado aún, demostrativa de la disposición de dinero con la que cuenta el grupo y la consiguiente posibilidad de manejar mayores relaciones económicas e influencias; que en el expediente se imputan “…delitos que se denunciaron como llevados a cabo al amparo de las estructuras de poder en torno al Estado”, destacándose las sospechas de actuación irregular por parte de funcionarios de la DGI, la PROCELAC y la Policía de Seguridad Aeroportuaria; y, finalmente, lo expresado por otros coimputados en el sentido de haber recibido amenazas.

Motivo por el cual, corresponde declarar inadmisible el recurso de casación, sin costas (C.P.P.N., arts. 444, segundo párrafo, 454, 465 bis, 530 y 531 in fine).

El Dr. Gustavo M. Hornos dijo:

Es mi criterio general que en cuestiones en que la resolución recurrida resulta restrictiva de la libertad personal durante el trámite del proceso y susceptible de ocasionar un perjuicio de imposible reparación ulterior, corresponde a esta Cámara Federal de Casación Penal conocer y decidir sobre el punto (conf. de esta Sala IV: causa Nro. 1893, “Greco, Sergio Miguel s/recurso de casación”, Reg. Nro. 2434.4, rta. el 25/02/00; causa Nro. 2638, “Rodríguez, Ramón s/recurso de queja”, Reg. Nro. 3292.4, rta. el 06/04/01; y causa Nº 466/2013: “Corso, Liliana Beatriz y otros s/recurso de casación”, Reg. Nº 805/13, rta. el 27/5/2013; entre muchas otras; y con cita de la doctrina sentada por la C.S.J.N. en los precedentes “Giroldi”, Fallos:318:514 y “Di Nunzio”, Fallos: 328:1108).

Sin embargo, en el particular caso de autos, los sólidos fundamentos expuestos por el tribunal de a quo en modo alguno han sido rebatidos por el recurrente, motivo por el cual no encuentro alegada ni demostrada una afectación suficiente, al menos a esta altura del proceso, para tachar -con sustento- de arbitraria a la resolución recurrida.

En mérito del acuerdo que antecede, el Tribunal, RESUELVE:

I. DECLARAR INADMISIBLE el recurso de casación interpuesto a fs. 50/68 vta. por los doctores Daniel Rubinovich y Rafael Sal Lari, por la defensa particular de Lázaro Antonio BAEZ, con costas (arts. 444, segundo párrafo, 454, 465 bis, 530 y 531 in fine del C.P.P.N.).

II. TENER PRESENTE la reserva del caso federal.

Regístrese, notifíquese y comuníquese (Acordada Nº 15/13, CSJN –Lex 100-). Remítanse las presentes actuaciones a la Sala II de la Cámara Nacional de Apelaciones en lo Criminal y Correccional Federal de esta ciudad, sirviendo la presente de muy atenta nota de envío.

Juan C. Gemignani – Gustavo M. Hornos – Mariano Hernán Borinsky

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