CSJN: aplicación de las reglas de competencia para “garantizar la inmediatez con el interesado durante el proceso”

M., M. H. s/articulo 152 ter. Cód. Civ. – incidente familia, Corte Suprema de Justicia de la Nación, 03-05-2016.

SINTESIS. Haciendo aplicación de las reglas en materia de competencia del nuevo Código Civil y Comercial de la Nación (CCC), la Corte Suprema de Justicia de la Nación, hizo envío de un expediente que, por más de diez años, tramitó en otra jurisdicción a la que se encontraba internado un incapaz, conforme la normativa aplicable en materia de capacidad, y teniéndose en consideración que el tribunal debe optar medidas que resulten necesarias para salvaguardar la integridad psicofísica y patrimonial del causante, y ajustar el procedimiento a lo dispuesto en los arts. 31, sgtes. y ccds. del CCC y a la normativa contemplada en la ley 26.657. La presente se resuelve en el marco de las discrepancias sobre la competencia para entender en la causa suscitadas entre el Juzgado Nacional de Primera Instancia en lo Civil n° 82 y el Juzgado de Familia nº 1 del Departamento Judicial de Mercedes, provincia de Buenos Aires, determinándose que este último se encuentra en mejores condiciones para proseguir con la función tutelar, sobre todo si se repara en que, entre los deberes impuestos expresamente al juez, está el de “garantizar la inmediatez con el interesado durante el proceso” (art. 35, C.C. y C.).

Texto completo del fallo y dictamen de la Procuración

 

Corte Suprema de Justicia de la Nación, 3 de Mayo de 2016.

Autos y Vistos; Considerando:

Que aun cuando no se ha cumplido con la notificación del auto de fs. 241 respecto del causante, tal como lo señala la señora Procuradora Fiscal subrogante en el acápite 1 de su dictamen, evidentes razones de economía procesal, celeridad y mejor administración de justicia tornan aconsejable dirimir el conflicto en las actuales condiciones.

Por ello, de conformidad con el referido dictamen y con el del señor Defensor General adjunto ante esta Corte, se declara que resulta competente para conocer en las actuaciones el Juzgado de Familia n° 1 del Departamento Judicial de Mercedes, provincia de Buenos Aires, al que se le remitirán. Este tribunal deberá adoptar -con carácter urgente- las medidas que resulten necesarias para salvaguardar la integridad psicofísica y patrimonial del causante, y ajustar el procedimiento a lo dispuesto en los arts. 31, sgtes. y ccds. del Cód. Civ. y Comercial de la Nación y a la normativa contemplada en la Ley Nº 26.657.

Hágase saber al Juzgado Nacional de Primera Instancia en lo civil n° 82.

Ricardo L. Lorenzetti – Juan C. Maqueda – Elena H. de Nolasco


Procuración General de la Nación

SUPREMA CORTE:

El Juzgado Nacional de Primera Instancia en lo Civil n° 82 y el Juzgado de Familia nº 1 del Departamento Judicial de Mercedes, provincia de Buenos Aires, discrepan en torno a su competencia para conocer en esta causa (fs. 241, 272, 275/276 Y 280 -sin foliar-).

Ante todo, cabe anotar que no consta, en rigor, que se haya cumplido con la notificación del auto de fs. 241 respecto del causante. Sin embargo, atendiendo a la delicada materia objeto del proceso, estimo que razones de celeridad, economía procesal y mejor adminístración de justicia aconsejan que esa Corte ejerza la atribución conferida por el art. 24, inc. 7, del decreto-Ley Nº 1285/1958, y se pronuncie sin más dilaciones sobre la radicación definitiva del expediente (doctr. de Fallos: 330: 1832; 333:225, entre otros).

-II-

 El 1° de agosto pasado ha entrado en vigor el Cód. Civ. y Comercial de la Nación (ley nº 26.994) que, en la sección destinada a las restricciones de la capacidad, se ocupa de organizar el aspecto tocante a la competencia, que es -por regla ya falta de previsión legislativa en contrario- de aplicación inmediata (Fallos: 327:2703; 331:116).

En lo que nos concierne, el art. 36 del nuevo régimen establece que la solicitud de declaración de incapacidad o restrícción de la capacidad, se deduce ante el juez correspondiente al domicilio de la persona en cuyo interés se promueve el juicio, o ante el juez del lugar de su internación. Esa pauta legal debe leerse a la luz de ” … sus fmalidades, las leyes análogas, … los tratados sobre derechos humanos, los principios y los valoresjuridicos, de modo coherente con todo el ordenamiento … ” (arts. 1 y 2, C.C. y C.).

En tal contexto interpretativo y aun cuando el proceso se inició en 2001, adquiere singular preponderancia el principio de la tutela judicial efectiva y la doctrina que esa Corte ha elaborado sobre la base de dicha directiva constitucional (doctrína de fallos: 328:4832; S.C. Comp. 1524, L. XLI, “c. M.A. si insania”, del 27/12105; y S.C. Comp. 145, L. XLIV, “F. C.M. si insania”; S.C. Comp. 191, L. XLIV, “L. R. si arto 482 Cód. Civ.”; y S.C. Comp. 233, L. XLIV, “N. E. si internación”, resueltos el 30/9108; y CIV 70172/1994/CS1, del 25/08/15; y CS] 2861120151CS1, del 08/09/15, entre varios otros).

En este sentido, es preciso tener en cuenta que el Código actual asigna al juez la obligación de revisar la sentencia respectiva, tarea ésta que ha de llevarse a cabo con asiduidad y sobre la base de nuevos dictámenes interdisciplinarios y con la audiencia personal del interesado (art. 40). Asimismo, la entrevista -según ese ordenamiento- debe celebrarse en presencia del Ministerio Público y de un letrado que le preste asistencia al afectado (art. 35).

Como puede colegirse, dado el tenor de esa encomienda, la cercanía física contribuye a la concreción de las finalidades normativas. Al propio tiempo, incide en la concentración y demás aspectos prácticos propios de este tipo de realidades, que exigen particular celeridad y eficacia.

En efecto, la labor atribuida a los jueces por el Cód. Civ. y Comercial va más allá de una aproximación de visu, pues implica un ejercicio de evaluación y de seguimiento que, desde mi perspectiva, en este caso no podría desplegarse adecuadamente desde una sede judicial que no sea la del lugar donde habita establemente la persona; máxime, cuando el desenvolvimiento de los profesionales involucrados vendrá a verse dificultado fuera del ámbito territorial en el que fueron designados.

En ese marco, se observa que el Sr. M.H.M. vive desde julio de 2007 en la Casa Nuestra Señora del Pilar, ubicada en la localidad de Luján, provincia de Buenos Aires (v. esp. fs. 126/28), y que su hermano y curador no ha objetado la declinatoria del juez nacional (fs. 245), de manera tal que el Juzgado de Familia n° 1 del Departamento Judicial de Mercedes, se encuentra en mejores condiciones para proseguir con la función tutelar, sobre todo si se repara en que, entre los deberes impuestos expresamente al juez, está el de “garantizar la inmediatez con el interesado durante el proceso” (art. 35, C.C. y C.).

-III-

 Por último, no obstante la cuestión concreta por la que se confiere vista a este Ministerio Público, advierto que el procedimiento deberá ajustarse inmediatamente a lo dispuesto por los arts. 3 1 -sgtes. y ccds. del C.C. y C.-, sin perjuicio de adecuar su actuación a las demás directivas contenidas en ese ordenamiento y en la Ley Nº 26.657, en tanto resultaren pertinentes.

Buenos Aires,  de febrero de 2016.

Irma A. Garcia Netto – Procuradora Fiscal Subrogante

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