Mendoza: fueron regulados en $250 los honorarios de un letrado, en el marco de una quiebra

Ortiz, Miguel A. s/Concurso Preventivo – Quiebra, Cámara en lo Civil, Comercial, Minas, de Paz y Tributaria de Mendoza – Cámara Segunda, 13-04-2016.

El decisorio que reguló honorarios a favor de un abogado por su labor posterior al dictado de la sentencia que declaró liquidada una quiebra, resultó confirmado por la Cámara de Apelaciones en lo Civil, Comercial, Minas, de Paz y Tributaria de Mendoza. Si bien el letrado consideró insignificante la suma regulada, la Cámara destacó que el juicio en cuestión es uno solo y, aunque transite por varias etapas, debe ser evaluado en su totalidad con una regulación única, comprendiendo ésta última toda la labor a desarrollar en el proceso, máxime cuando no existen razones que en forma alguna justifiquen la nueva determinación de emolumentos, efectuada por el juez interviniente. Se señala asimismo que, luego de presentado el informe final y de estar distribuido todo el activo, el juez concursal tiene que dictar una resolución declarando la conclusión de la quiebra por pago total, o decretando la clausura del procedimiento por distribución total y en ambos casos, y con carácter previo, el magistrado ya debe haber estimado las retribuciones en ocasión de finalizar la realización de los bienes.

Texto completo

Cámara de Apelaciones en lo Civil, Comercial, Minas, de Paz  y Tributaria de Mendoza – Cámara Segunda, 19 de febrero de 2016.

I.- ANTECEDENTES Y RECURSO

A fs. 183/20184 de estas actuaciones el Juez de Primera Instancia, reguló los honorarios profesionales del Síndico Contador Antonio Lafalla y del patrocinante del fallido, Dr. Fernando Torres Linch (el proceso se había iniciado como concurso preventivo y ante la falta de acuerdo con los acreedores, se declaró la quiebra). La resolución fue revisada y modificada por este Tribunal, por aplicación del art. 272 de la Ley Nº 24.522.-

Las actuaciones cumplidas con posterioridad, con la interven-ción de los mismos profesionales, son la aprobación del proyecto de distribución, la suspensión de los descuentos en el bono de sueldo del fallido y la conclusión de la quiebra por pago a los acreedores, ordenada a fs. 259/260 vta.; resolución en la que el Juez, fundándose en lo dispuesto por los arts. 253, 254 y 265 inc. 5 de la Ley Nº 24522, reguló honorarios al Síndico en la suma de $ 500. Ante el planteo aclaratorio del Dr. Fernando Torres Linch, a fs. 266/266 vta., se fijaron sus honorarios en la suma de $ 250.-

Alega razones el abogado actuante, indicando que el monto regulado resulta insignificante para la labor efectuada, ya que luego de la resolución de fs. 183, se efectuaron distintas presentaciones que enumera: solicitud de suspensión de descuentos en los haberes del concursado, confección y tramitación de oficios, solicitud de clausura por pago total, etc., hasta obtener la finalización de la quiebra.-

II.- TRATAMIENTO DEL RECURSO

El recurso no puede prosperar, porque el juicio en el que se de-claró la quiebra del deudor es uno solo y, aunque transite por varias etapas, debe ser evaluado en su totalidad con una regulación única. Significa ello que la regulación que se practica en la oportunidad prevista para la quiebra liquidada (art. 267 LCQ), comprende la totalidad de las distintas actuaciones cumplidas y que se cumplirán hasta la finalización del proceso; quedando a salvo situaciones excepcionales en las que, por ejemplo, se produzca un aumento del activo.

Así señalan Pesaresi y Passaron: “Después de presentado el in-forme final… y de distribuido todo el activo, el juez debe dictar una resolución declarando la conclusión por pago total….o clausurando el procedimiento por distribución total… En ambos casos, y con carácter previo, el magistrado ya debe haber estimado las retribuciones en ocasión de finalizar la realización de los bienes (art. 265, inc. 4), por lo cual, el hecho de que en un acto posterior se declare expresamente concluida la quiebra por pago total no implica que dicha resolución contenga decisión sobre honorarios. Ello por cuanto, en principio, debe predicarse la ultra actividad de aquella primigenia fijación estipendiaria, que es suficiente para retribuir cualquier otro trabajo profesional (sobre todo del síndico), salvo el transcurso de un tiempo prolongado y la evidencia de labores extraordinarias (lo que debe ser ponderado por el juzgador en cada caso) ameriten una nueva regulación de honorarios por dichas tareas” (Ver PESARESI, Guillermo Mario y PASSARÓN, Julio Federico, Honorarios en concursos y quiebras, Bs. As., Astrea, 2002, pág. 299).

También tiene dicho nuestro Superior Tribunal: “La oportunidad por excelencia para fijar los honorarios en la falencia sea liquidativa o no liquidativa es su finalización (art. 265 incs. 2 a 5). La ley provee porcentajes máximos y mínimos que, por regla, deben ser respetados, salvo situaciones excepcionales donde surja una evidente desproporción entre el honorario resultante y la labor desarrollada. Salvo la posibilidad que pretorianamente se otorgó a los profesionales de cobrar las rentas ganadas en los fondos depositados por el lapso en que tardó en hacerse efectivamente de los estipendios, no es posible en principio, acceder a la regulación por trabajos ulteriores, los que se saben ser considerados incluidos en la regulación hecha al presentarse el informe final. 91329 – Garbuio Alejandro y otro en J° 6.084/198.915 Farmed s/Quiebra s/inc. Cas., Fecha: 16/2005/2008 – Sentencia, Tribunal: Suprema Corte – Sala N° 1, Magistrados: Kemelmajer-Romano-Pérez Hualde, Ubicación: LS389-009” (fallo completo: http://www2.jus.mendoza.gov.ar/jurisprudencia/consultar/fallo.php?fallo=08199295&ta=sc) En el caso que se trae a solución la regulación de honorarios de los profesionales (Síndico y patrocinante del fallido) fue establecida en la resolución de fs. 183/20184, controlada por este Tribunal a fs. 193/20195. Es compresiva de toda la labor a desarrollar en el proceso, y no existen razones que en forma alguna justifiquen la nueva determinación de emolumentos, efectuada por el Juez interviniente. Sin embar-go, no existiendo recurso del deudor y encontrándose desinteresados los acreedores, no corresponde revocar la resolución, pero tampoco incrementar el monto de honora-rios de una regulación que no correspondía efectuar.- En conclusión y tal como se adelantara, corresponde rechazar el recurso de apelación deducido.-

III.- COSTAS Y HONORARIOS

Habiéndose tramitado el recurso por aplicación del art. 40 del C.P.C., no corresponde imponer costas, ni regular honorarios.

Se resuelve:

I.- RECHAZAR el recurso de apelación deducido por el Dr. Fernando Torres Linch y en consecuencia confirmar las resoluciones de fojas doscien-tos cincuenta y nueve barra doscientos sesenta vuelta y doscientos sesenta y seis y vuelta, en cuanto han sido objeto de recurso.-

II.- NO IMPONER costas, ni regular honorarios.- NOTIFÍQUESE POR CÉDULA DE OFICIO y oportunamente bajen.

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