La CSJN resolvió la competencia en un proceso de guarda con fines de adopción teniendo en cuenta “el centro de vida” de la menor involucrada, conforme el art. 716 CCC

D., L. A. y Otro s/Guarda, Corte Suprema de Justicia de la Nación, 27/10/2015.

SUMARIO. La Corte Suprema de Justicia de la Nación dejó sin efecto la sentencia que había declarado la incompetencia del fuero Civil en el marco de un proceso de guarda con fines de adopción, y había dispuesto la remisión de la causa al tribunal que resultara competente en la Provincia de Misiones, por tener allí su domicilio la madre de la menor cuya guarda se pretendía. Fundó tal decisión en lo dispuesto por el art. 716 del Cód. Civ. y Com., que fija las reglas en materia de competencia en los procesos relativos a los derechos de niños, niñas y adolescentes, estableciendo que es competente el juez del lugar donde la persona menor de edad tiene su centro de vida. Por lo tanto, ponderando el tipo de derechos que en la causa requieren la inmediata actuación de un juez que atienda la situación de la menor, se consideró prescindir de los reparos formales, y disponer que resulta competente para entender en el caso el Juzgado Nacional de Primera Instancia en lo Civil, en cuyo ámbito de actuación reside, de manera efectiva y estable, la niña.


Texto completo del fallo

Buenos Aires, 27 de Octubre de 2015.-

Considerando:

1) Que la Sala H de la Cámara Nacional de Apelaciones en lo Civil, en el marco de un proceso de guarda con fines de adopción y con sustento en lo dispuesto por el arto 90, inc. 6°, del Cód. Civ., confirmó la decisión de primera instancia por la que el magistrado de grado se había declarado incompetente para entender en el caso, y dispuso la remisión de copias certificadas de la causa al tribunal que resultara competente en el Departamento Judicial de la Provincia de Misiones, lugar en el que se domiciliaba la madre de la menor cuya guarda se pretendía.

2) Que contra dicho pronunciamiento los actores dedujeron recurso extraordinario que, denegado, dio lugar a la presente queja.

Atento a que se encontraban comprometidos los intereses de la niña, se solicitaron las actuaciones principales y se dio vista a la señora Defensora General, quien dictaminó a fs. 50/55. A fs. 57/59 hizo lo propio el señor Procurador Fiscal subrogante.

3) Que los antecedentes del caso, la procedencia de la vía intentada y la cuestión propuesta por los recurrentes vinculada con la competencia de la Justicia Nacional en lo Civil-, encuentran respuesta en las motivaciones del dictamen del señor Procurador Fiscal subrogante, que el Tribunal comparte a fin de evitar repeticiones innecesarias.

4) Que corresponde señalar que frente a la entrada en vigencia del Cód. Civ. y Comercial de la Nación y en orden al principio de aplicación inmediata de las leyes modificatorias de competencia, el criterio seguido en el citado dictamen encuentra recepción expresa en el arto 716 del citado código. Dicha norma fija las reglas en materia de competencia en los procesos relativos a los derechos de niños, niñas y adolescentes -entre los que se encuentran los procesos de guarda y adopción-, y establece que es competente el juez del lugar donde la persona menor de edad tiene su centro de vida.

5) Que en tales condiciones y más allá del modo en que se planteó la controversia, dada la índole de los derechos en juego que requieren la inmediata actuación de un juez que atienda la situación de la menor, corresponde prescindir de los reparos formales, dirimir la cuestión y disponer que resulta competente para entender en el caso el Juzgado Nacional de Primera Instancia en lo civil n° 56, en cuyo ámbito de actuación reside, de manera efectiva y estable, la niña (conf. causa Competencia CSJ 4277/2014/CS1 “G., A. V. s/guarda”, sentencia del 17 de .marzo de 2015) .

6) Que atento al tiempo transcurrido desde el inicio del proceso y a la entidad de los derechos comprometidos, esta Corte encomienda al magistrado competente a obrar con la premura y la mesura que el caso amerita en la resolución definitiva del conflicto, de modo de hacer efectivo el interés superior del menor que como principio rector enuncia la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño, y de evitar que pueda prolongarse aún más la incertidumbre sobre la situación del menor y su posibilidad de crecer en el seno de una familia.

Por ello, de conformidad con lo dictaminado por el señor Procurador Fiscal subrogante, se declara procedente la quej a, admisible el recurso extraordinario y, con el alcance indicado, se deja sin efecto la sentencia apelada y se dispone que resulta competente para entender en las presentes actuaciones el Juzgado Nacional de Primera Instancia en lo Civil n° 56. Sin costas atento a la índole de la cuestión planteada. Agréguese la queja al principal.

Elena I. Highton de Nolasco – Juan C. Maqueda – Ricardo L. Lorenzetti

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