Jurisprudencia de la Cám. Nac. de Apel. en lo Civil y Comercial Federal: Sociedades. Notificación por cédula bajo responsabilidad de la parte actora

Sociedad Comercial – Notificación por cédula bajo responsabilidad – Domicilio

Lamuedra, Ernesto R. c/Facebook Inc y Otros s/Incumplimiento de Contrato, Cámara Nacional de Apelaciones en lo Civil y Comercial Federal, Sala II, 18-02-2015.
SINTESIS. La Cámara Nacional de Apelaciones en lo Civil y Comercial Federal ordenó que se notifiqué a la empresa demandada con una cédula bajo responsabilidad de la parte actora, en el marco de una acción por incumplimiento de contrato que el accionante inició, en donde denunció el domicilio de la demandada y le cursó notificaciones a fin de informar la existencia del litigio, pero las cédulas siempre regresaban sin notificar informando el oficial notificador que en ese lugar le indicaban que había que enviar la cédula a la sección legales de la empresa, ya que la accionante ha logrado establecer cuál es el verdadero domicilio de su contraria, partiéndose de la base de que es el primer interesado en extremar las precauciones necesarias para evitar una eventual nulidad y el pago de las costas, por lo que resulta procedente admitir su pedido.

Las cédulas bajo responsabilidad de la parte actora se diligencian con abstracción de que el requerido viva o no viva en ese domicilio.

La notificación bajo responsabilidad de la actora es una creación pretoriana con miras a facilitar el desenvolvimiento normal del proceso, evitando maniobras dilatorias o de ocultamiento del domicilio.

Fallo completo:

Cámara Nacional de Apelaciones en lo Civil y Comercial Federal – Sala II

Buenos Aires, 18 de Febrero de 2015.-

Considerando:
1) En la referida providencia, el a quo desestimó el pedido de la actora para que se notifique el traslado de la demanda bajo su responsabilidad en el domicilio denunciado a fs. 99. Sustentó la decisión en los informes practicados por el oficial notificador en las cédulas devueltas sin diligenciar (fs. 102/105), sin perjuicio de las gestiones de averiguación que son propias de su interés en función de los previsto en el art. 145 del Código Procesal.
2) El demandante cuestiona la decisión por estimar que no tiene que realizar averiguaciones sobre el domicilio de las demandadas pues ya las ha hecho y que no se trata de un supuesto que justifique la notificación por edictos. Aduce que el informe del oficial notificador ratificó esta conclusión y sólo da cuenta de un intento de obstruir el debido proceso al pretenderse derivar la notificación una sección legales cuya ubicación no está precisada.
3) A juicio de la Sala asiste razón al recurrente en su impugnación puesto que el informe del oficial notificador no indica con precisión un domicilio determinado y ni sugiere de que se trate el domicilio social inscripto de las demandadas -con el efecto que produciría desde la óptica del art, 11, inc. 2, de la Ley Nº 19.550-. Tampoco se trata de un supuesto en el que se pretenda la notificación por edictos, circunstancia a la que apunta la norma ritual invocada por el a quo.
Si la actora sostiene que ese es el domicilio en donde corresponde notificar la demanda, cuestión que no se ve desmentida por las diligencias ya cumplidas, no hay motivo alguno para que se practique la notificación bajo su responsabilidad. Este instituto se encuentra contemplado en forma expresa por una norma de superintendencia dictadas por la Corte Suprema que dispone que: “…Las cédulas bajo responsabilidad de la parte actora se diligencian con abstracción de que el requerido viva o no viva en ese domicilio” (conf. art. 156, inc. “e”, del Reglamento para la Organización y Funcionamiento de la Oficina de Notificaciones para la Justicia Nacional y Federal, aprobado mediante Acordada CSJN n° 9/90, publicada en Fallos 313:10). Y lo cierto es que ese ordenamiento se ha dictado en virtud de la potestad reglamentaria delegada al Alto Tribunal por el legislador (conf. art. 48 del decreto-Ley Nº 1285/58, que pone a su cargo la superintendencia y reglamentación de la citada dependencia).
Desde ese ángulo, es pacífica la corriente jurisprudencial que admite cursar una notificación bajo responsabilidad de la actora. De hecho, esta modalidad de notificación resultó una creación pretoriana con miras a facilitar el desenvolvimiento normal del proceso, evitando maniobras dilatorias o de ocultamiento del domicilio (conf. Maurino, Alberto Luis; Notificaciones Procesales, Ed. Astrea, 1990, pág. 113). La Corte Suprema la ha admitido en la convicción de que se ha de actuar con la rectitud y buena fe que debe presidir el ejercicio de las acciones ante los órganos judiciales, especialmente cuando se trata de la citación al demandado, acto de trascendental importancia en el proceso desde que guarda estrecha vinculación con la garantía constitucional de la defensa en juicio (conf. Fallos: 306:392, 316:247 y 319:672). Y presume que la parte actora ha logrado establecer cuál es el verdadero domicilio de su contraria, partiéndose de la base de que es el primer interesado en extremar las precauciones necesarias para evitar una eventual nulidad y el pago de las costas (conf. esta Cámara, Sala 1, causa n° 15.220/94, del 12.4.07; esta Sala, causa n° 1029/99, del 22.6.07; Sala 3, causa n° 1036/01, del 17.5.07; entre muchos otros).
En virtud de lo expuesto, esta Sala RESUELVE: revocar la providencia recurrida.
Hágase saber al actor que deberán registrar, validar y constituir en el expediente su domicilio electrónico, bajo apercibimiento de -en su caso- notificarles las sucesivas decisiones del tribunal por ministerio de la ley (conf. acordadas CSJN n° 31/11 y 38/13, arg. art. 41, primera parte, del C.P.C.C.N.).
Regístrese, notifíquese y devuélvase.
Ricardo V. Guarinoni – Alfredo S. Gusman – Graciela Medin

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