Fallo de CSJN: “Recurso de hecho deducido por la demandada en la causa Fundación Medio Ambiente c/ EN – PEN . dto. 1638/12 –SSN – resol 37.160 s/ medida cautelar autónoma”, 11/12/14

SUMARIO.- La Sala II de feria de la Cámara Nacional de Apelaciones en lo Contencioso Administrativo Federal confirmó la decisión de primera instancia que había concedido una medida cautelar de suspensión de los efectos del decreto 1.638/12 y de la resolución de la Superintendencia de Seguros de la Nación (SSN) 37.160/12. En consecuencia, ordenó a la SSN a adoptar los procedimientos necesarios para requerir, con carácter previo a la emisión o comercialización de pólizas en los términos del artículo 22 de la Ley General del Ambiente 25.675, la conformidad ambiental otorgada por la Secretaría de Ambiente y Desarrollo Sustentable de la Jefatura de Gabinete de Ministros , y la acreditación de la capacidad técnica para remediar mediante la presentación de contratos suscriptos con operadores debidamente habilitados, tal como se venía haciendo con anterioridad al dictado del decreto cuya suspensión de efectos se decidió. Contra esa decisión, el Estado Nacional interpuso recurso extraordinario que, denegado, motivó la presente queja.

Cuestión federal: Compatibilidad entre la Ley General del ambiente 25.675 (en especial, artículo 22), el decreto del Poder Ejecutivo Nacional 1638/12 reglamentario del seguro ambiental, y la resolución de Superintendencia de Seguros de la Nación (SSN) 37.160/12 que aprobó las condiciones generales del seguro obligatorio de caución por daño ambiental, siendo lo debatido y resuelto contrario al derecho que la recurrente sustentó en esas disposiciones.

Admisibilidad del recurso: si bien la medida cautelar no es una sentencia definitiva, es asimilable en este caso por la gravedad institucional en juego, ya que se encuentra involucrada la división de poderes y la suspensión de un decreto con presunción de legitimidad. También existe el planteo de arbitrariedad de la sentencia.

La ley 25.675 instituye el seguro ambiental como un instrumento financiero, en tanto prevé que ese contrato se constituye para garantizar el financiamiento de la recomposición del daño por parte del generador de efectos degradantes del ambiente.

La alzada no efectuó la estricta apreciación del peligro en la demora, en especial cuando la medida cautelar decretada compromete erga omnes la aplicación de un decreto dictado por el Poder Ejecutivo Nacional que goza de la presunción de legitimidad.

La Corte concluye que la medida cautelar dispuesta aparece como un remedio desproporcionado a la naturaleza y relevancia de la hipotética ilegitimidad que se denuncia. No solo por la falta de adecuación entre la violación institucional alegada y las consecuencias de la medida dispuesta, sino también porque, en la tarea de ponderación, la cámara debió haber tenido en cuenta que la cautelar suspende la vigencia del decreto 1638/12 y de la resolución SSN 37.160/12 y ordena a la par, la adopción de un sistema determinado de comprobación de idoneidad técnica, tiene una significativa incidencia sobre el principio constitucional de división de poderes, por lo que su procedencia debió ser evaluada con criterios especialmente estrictos que la Cámara no aplicó.

Por lo expuesto, la Corte destacó la descalificación del fallo impugnado por afectar de modo directo e inmediato las cláusulas constitucionales invocadas, con la consecuente necesidad de que el caso sea nuevamente resuelto mediante un pronunciamiento que cuente con fundamentos razonados que lo sostengan como acto constitucionalmente válido. Por ello, hizo lugar a la queja, declaró procedente el recurso extraordinario interpuesto por la demandada y, con los alcances expuestos, dejó sin efecto la sentencia apelada.

Ver Dictamen de la procuradora

Ver fallo completo

37 comentarios de “Fallo de CSJN: “Recurso de hecho deducido por la demandada en la causa Fundación Medio Ambiente c/ EN – PEN . dto. 1638/12 –SSN – resol 37.160 s/ medida cautelar autónoma”, 11/12/14

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