“LILLO RAMONA ISABEL y AGUILERA MARIO AGUSTÍN P/ DIV. VINC. M.A. DISOLUC. Y LIQ. DE LA SOC. CONYUGAL”, Suprema Corte de Mendoza, 26/11/2014

SUMARIO.- Desistimiento de la acción de divorcio antes de la sentencia. Rechazo de nulidad de la sentencia de divorcio por vicios en la segunda audiencia. Nacimiento de un hijo durante el proceso del divorcio. Efectos retroactivos a la fecha de presentación de la demanda conjunta. Se confirmó la sentencia de divorcio pero con efectos a partir del pedido de sentencia del marido, modificándose los efectos retroactivos a la fecha de presentación de la demanda conjunta.

Aspectos relevantes de la sentencia:

“La cuestión a dilucidar en la presente causa consiste en determinar si resulta arbitraria o normativamente incorrecta la sentencia que declara el divorcio entre las partes teniendo en cuenta las siguientes circunstancias que surgen de la causa: a) en el año 2006 las partes solicitan el divorcio de común acuerdo; b) se realizan las dos audiencias que indica el proceso, aunque ante la falta de constancia de la segunda, la mujer plantea la nulidad de las actuaciones; c) el proceso no registra movimientos por más de cuatro años y, en el año 2011, sin haberse dictado sentencia de divorcio, la mujer desiste de la acción de divorcio; d) ese desistimiento unilateral no es aceptado por el juez; e) el esposo solicita que se dicte sentencia (el 14/06/2011), por lo que el 15/09/2011 se dicta sentencia que declara el divorcio entre las partes, con efectos retroactivos a la fecha de presentación conjunta el 16/05/2006; f) entre la presentación del divorcio y la sentencia, en el año 2008, nace un tercer hijo de la pareja.”

“Cuando uno de los cónyuges, en un proceso de divorcio de mutuo acuerdo, se retracta o arrepiente de su voluntad de divorciarse ya realizada la segunda audiencia pero previo al dictado de la sentencia de divorcio, hay dos caminos posibles: o denegar la facultad de arrepentimiento o desistimiento unilateral, como lo resolvió el juez de primera instancia a fs. 46; o considerar válido el desistimiento porque aún no hay sentencia.”

“Personalmente me inclino por esta segunda posición, por cuanto considero que para que pueda declararse el divorcio de mutuo acuerdo, de conformidad con lo dispuesto por el art. 236 Código Civil, el acuerdo entre las partes debe susbsistir durante todo el proceso hasta el dictado de la sentencia, por cuanto implicaría conculcar elementales derechos el decretar compulsivamente el divorcio “de mutuo acuerdo” de una persona que expresamente ha manifestado su voluntad de no divorciarse, de no continuar con el trámite de la presentación conjunta”.

“Otra razón que me convence de la oportunidad de mantener la sentencia recurrida, en cuanto declara el divorcio vincular entre las partes, es el texto del nuevo Código Civil y Comercial sancionado recientemente.

Si bien, este nuevo régimen normativo aún no entra en vigencia, resulta importante destacar en este momento, cuál ha sido la intención y el propósito de los legisladores a la hora de decidir modificar el régimen actual del divorcio.

Así, en los Fundamentos del Anteproyecto, se lee que “basta con que uno de los esposos no desee la continuación del matrimonio para que pueda demandar el divorcio, sin que el demandado pueda oponerse a la petición por motivos materiales, y sin que el juez pueda rechazar la petición. De esta manera, el matrimonio se celebra y se sostiene por la voluntad coincidente de los contrayentes y, por ende, cuando la voluntad de uno de ellos o de ambos desaparece, el matrimonio no tiene razón de ser y no puede ser continuado, habilitándose por este simple y elemental fundamento, que uno o ambos puedan solicitar su divorcio. El respeto por la libertad y autonomía de la persona humana y su proyecto de vida impone la obligación de evitar forzar a un sujeto a continuar en un matrimonio que ya no se desea. La protección integral de la familia de tipo matrimonial no implica desconocer los derechos fundamentales de cada uno de sus integrantes, quienes no pueden ver conculcados sus derechos a costa o por fuerza del matrimonio”.

Lo apuntado resulta relevante sólo para advertir lo inconveniente que resultaría revocar la sentencia de divorcio y obligar a las partes, o por lo menos al recurrido, a iniciar un nuevo trámite de divorcio, cuando la voluntad de permanecer junto a su esposa es evidente que ha desaparecido”.

En consecuencia, se confirma la sentencia de divorcio pero modificándose los efectos retroactivos de la misma a la fecha de la última manifestación de voluntad en tal sentido del esposo, quien en fecha 24/05/2011, pide que se dicte sentencia de divorcio, y no a la fecha de presentación de la demanda conjunta, ya que los hechos habían cambiado ese contexto. Recién en esa fecha puede considerarse que se reanudó la intención, por lo menos de uno de ellos, de continuar con el trámite del divorcio.

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36 comentarios de ““LILLO RAMONA ISABEL y AGUILERA MARIO AGUSTÍN P/ DIV. VINC. M.A. DISOLUC. Y LIQ. DE LA SOC. CONYUGAL”, Suprema Corte de Mendoza, 26/11/2014

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