“Recurso de hecho deducido por la defensa de Mauricio M. Frois en la causa Frois, Mauricio s/ causa n° 88/2011”. Destitución de magistrado. Falta de validez de la sentencia dictada por una Corte Provincial por ausencia de imparcialidad de sus jueces.

Con fecha 7/10/2014 la CSJN dejó sin efecto la denegatoria del recurso de inconstitucionalidad previsto en la ley local 7055, en el que se invocó la violación de la garantía de defensa en juicio por parte del jurado de enjuiciamiento que había resuelto la destitución del actor.

Antecedentes del caso: Mediante el decisorio de fecha 15/3/2010, el Tribunal de Enjuiciamiento de Magistrados de la Provincia de Santa Fe destituyó al doctor Mauricio Luis Fernando Frois del cargo de Juez de Primera Instancia de Distrito en lo Penal de Sentencia de la Cuarta Nominación del Distrito Judicial n° 1 -provincia de Santa Fe-, por considerar encuadrada su conducta en las causales previstas en el artículo 7, inciso primero -segunda parte-, e inciso segundo, de la ley 7050 y sus modificatorias 11.115 y 12.949.

Contra dicho pronunciamiento el magistrado promovió el recurso de inconstitucionalidad (ley local 7055) alegando la violación de la garantía de defensa en juicio, al haber sido destituido -a su entender- por una imputación que no integró debidamente la pieza acusatoria, por prescindir el fallo de prueba decisiva y por sustentarse la decisión en fundamentos aparentes.

La Corte Suprema de Justicia de la Provincia de Santa Fe declaró inadmisible el recurso, haciendo pie en la tradicional jurisprudencia del Supremo Tribunal sobre los limitados alcances del control de constitucionalidad en procedimientos de esta especie. Finalmente, esa sentencia fue impugnada por el doctor Mauricio Frois mediante el recurso extraordinario federal.

Fundamentos de la CSJN:

En primer lugar, la Corte recordó que “las decisiones en materia de los llamados juicios políticos o enjuiciamiento de magistrados en la esfera provincial, cuyo trámite se efectuó ante órganos ajenos a los poderes judiciales locales, constituyen un ámbito en el que es posible la intervención judicial en la medida que se aduzca y demuestre inequívocamente por el interesado la violación de alguno de los derechos o garantías establecidos en el arto 18 de la Constitución Nacional.”

Habiendo planteado el actor la afectación de la garantía que le asiste de contar con un recurso apto ante un tribunal imparcial, condición que, según su juicio, no ostentaría la Corte santafesina en la medida en que cuatro jueces que participaron de la decisión de rechazar el recurso judicial de inconstitucionalidad habían integrado, junto con los demás miembros que contempla la ley 7050, el tribunal de enjuiciamiento que lo destituyó (art. 8.1 de la Convención Americana sobre Derechos Humanos), el Máximo Tribunal consideró que en el caso “existe cuestión federal suficiente puesto que la defensa pone en discusión el alcance de la garantía de juez imparcial reconocida dentro de los derechos implícitos del art. 33 de la Constitución Nacional, o, más estrictamente, arraigada en las garantías de debido proceso y de la defensa en juicio establecidas en el artículo 18 de dicha Ley Suprema, y consagrada expresamente en los artículos: 26 de la Declaración Americana de los Derechos y Deberes del Hombre, 14.1 del Pacto Internacional de Derechos Civiles y Políticos, 8.1 de la Convención Americana sobre Derechos Humanos, y 10 de la Declaración Universal de Derechos Humanos, que forman parte del bloque de constitucionalidad federal en virtud de la incorporación expresa que efectúa el art. 75, inciso 22 de la Constitución Nacional.”

Asimismo puso de resalto que “No obsta a esta conclusión la circunstancia de que el planteo hubiese sido invocado por el interesado en el recurso extraordinario, pues … las eventuales inobservancias sobre la oportuna introducción de la cuestión federal no pueden impedir el ejercicio por esta Corte de la jurisdicción más eminente reconocida por la Constitución Nacional, cuando se está en presencia de un caso de gravedad institucional”, aclarando que esta situación se da cuando, como en el  caso “existe la posibilidad de que a raíz de la actuación cumplida por el tribunal a quo se origine la responsabilidad internacional del Estado Argentino por el incumplimiento del orden jurídico supranacional.”

Expuesto ello, la Corte afirma que “las circunstancias concretas del caso revelan que el control judicial llevado a cabo por la Corte estadual no satisface las exigencias contempladas por la Convenci6n Americana sobre Derechos Humanos en los arts. 10, 80.10 Y 250, pues el tribunal que lo llevó a cabo no estaba integrado por jueces imparciales.”

Sobre dicha base, destaca que “la intervención tomada en este asunto para hacer efectiva la tuteta judicial pretendida por el magistrado destituido, con el riguroso alcance precisado- por una Corte Suprema integrada por cuatro jueces que, junto con otros siete miembros, constituyeron con anterioridad el tribunal de enjuiciamiento que -como lo prevé la ley 7050- tomó integro conocimiento del caso, participó como director del procedimiento y juzgó minuciosamente al recurrente, examinando su conducta, subsumiéndola en las calificaciones legales y estableciendo su responsabilidad política, para concluir en la destitución del cargo, configura objetivamente una patente infracción a la garantía del tribunal imparcial a cargo del control judicial efectivo, que prevén los arts. 18 de la Constitución Nacional y 1, 8 Y ,25 de la Convención Americana de Derechos Humanos.”

Agrega que “Frente a la naturaleza y raigambre del planteo señalado, así como la gravedad de que el control judicial se hubiera llevado a cabo por jueces cuya ausencia de imparcialidad era ostensible desde su intervención inicial (Fallos: 316:1710 y 324:1211), las expresiones del superior tribunal -acerca de que ninguna afectación a la imparcialidad se verifica en el ‘sub judice’ no pasan de ser una afirmación dogmática que es constitucionalmente insostenible (Fallos: 236:27), además de que desconoce la jurisprudencia de esta Corte y de la Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos que exige el carácter efectivo, idóneo y con posibilidades reales de los recursos por ante el poder judicial…, uno de cuyos recaudos fundamentales es que se promueva ante un tribunal imparcial.”

También señala que en diversos precedentes “ha extendido a las decisiones de los jurados de enjuiciamiento de magistrados provinciales la doctrina según la cual el superior tribunal de provincia del que ha de provenir la sentencia definitiva susceptible de recurso extraordinario es, en principio, el órgano jurisdiccional erigido como supremo por la constitución local, pues sin soslayar el principio en virtud del cual las provincias son libres para crear las instancias judiciales que estimen apropiadas, no pueden vedar a ninguna de ellas, y menos a las más altas, la aplicación preferente de la Constitución Nacional.”

Sobre la base de lo expuesto concluye en que “la garantía constitucional que se invoca como vulnerada guarda relación directa e inmediata con lo resuelto (art. 15, ley 48), por lo que corresponde privar de validez al fallo recurrido a fin de que la Corte Suprema de Justicia de Santa Fe dicte un pronunciamiento constitucionalmente válido en los términos que aquí se indica.”

Ver fallo completo: “Recurso de hecho deducido por la defensa de Mauricio M. Frois en la causa Frois, Mauricio s causa n° 882011”.

36 comentarios de ““Recurso de hecho deducido por la defensa de Mauricio M. Frois en la causa Frois, Mauricio s/ causa n° 88/2011”. Destitución de magistrado. Falta de validez de la sentencia dictada por una Corte Provincial por ausencia de imparcialidad de sus jueces.

  1. Este fallo marca una nueva etapa en la forma de enjuiciar a los magistrados judiciales en mi provincia….tenía 28 años cuando comencé a defenderlo a mi padre y en ese mismo año hice la queja y el recurso extraordinario federal…era mi primer recurso …..tenía miedo de que me lo rechacen hasta por cuestiones formales…nunca imaginé que iba a desencadenar semejante decisorio….Saludos….!!!!

    Mauricio Miguel FROIS

    • Hola Mauricio Miguel: Felicitaciones por tu trabajo y gran justicia para Mauricio (padre)…si podes pasanos el fallo definitivo de la Corte Suprema de Justicia de Santa Fe conforme al fallo de la Corte Suprema porque es un antecedente jurisprudencial importantisimo y tambien para vos como profesional..- Saludos Cordiales. Raul

  2. leo y leo el fallo y todavía no puedo creer que en la provincia de SAnta Fe tengan semejante corte suprema….por Dios….!!!

  3. Es excelente que los jóvenes abogados logren estas cosas…..porque demuestra que los litigantes se renuevan.!!!

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