La Cámara de Apelaciones en lo CAyT de la C.A.B.A. confirmó el rechazo “in limine” de la ejecución fiscal por título inhábil

SÍNTESIS.- En el caso, corresponde confirmar la resolución de primera Instancia que resolvió rechazar “in limine” la ejecución fiscal ya que el título ejecutivo resulta inhábil por contener una deuda que no resulta aún exigible.
En efecto, la recurrente se agravió por cuanto entiende que no correspondía el rechazo de la ejecución sino que, en todo caso, la Jueza de primera instancia debió ordenar la suspensión de la ejecución fiscal.
Según una consolidada jurisprudencia de los tribunales de esta jurisdicción, los actos mediante los cuales se imponen multas de carácter retributivo no pueden ser judicialmente ejecutados mientras sean cuestionados en sede judicial y la decisión a su respecto no se encuentre firme (confr. TSJ, “in re” “Deheza SACIF s/ queja por recurso de inconstitucionalidad denegado (expte nº 3415/04) en `Deheza SACIF c/ Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires s/ impugnación de actos administrativos´”, del 16/03/05, entre otros; Cámara del fuero, esta Sala, “Cardenazzi Pablo Sebastián c/ GCBA s/ impugnación actos administrativos”, del 08/04/09, entre otros; Sala II, “Toko Argentina S.A. c/ GCBA y otros s/ otros procesos incidentales”, del 01/04/09, íd. “Mary Kay Cosméticos S.A. c/ GCBA s/ medida cautelar”, del 28/08/08).
Ello es así pues en el artículo 450 del Código Contencioso Administrativo y Tributario se dispone que la ejecución fiscal sólo puede iniciarse en el caso de “multas ejecutoriadas”, es decir, aquellas que han sido consentidas, o a cuyo respecto se han agotado las vías administrativas y judiciales.
Así las cosas, se ha interpretado que el alcance que debe otorgársele a la expresión “ejecutoriadas” contenida en el artículo 450 mencionado no puede diferir del que el propio legislador le ha otorgado en otros artículos del mismo código adjetivo (vgr., arts. 61, 93, 286, 392 y 409), relativo a aquellas decisiones que se encuentran firmes, ya sea por no haber sido cuestionadas o por haber sido confirmadas tras la pertinente impugnación (confr. Cámara del fuero, Sala II, “GCBA c/ Scania Plan S.A. de ahorro para fines determinados s/ Ej. Fisc.”, del 29/04/03).
Pese a ello, al apelar, el recurrente no rebatió que la multa aquí reclamada no se encontraría firme.

En efecto, corresponde rechazar el agravio formulado en cuanto a que la promoción de la presente causa era la única forma de interrumpir el transcurso del plazo la prescripción de la ejecución de la multa.
Así, tal como señaló la Sra. Fiscal, corresponde destacar que en el artículo 85 del Código Fiscal (t.o. 2016), se prevé que “[e]l término de prescripción de la acción para hacer efectiva la multa, comenzará a correr desde la fecha de notificación de la resolución firme que la imponga”.
En tal sentido, se ha señalado que “[…] el rechazo de la demanda ejecutiva no le impide al Gobierno local iniciar —en el futuro— una nueva ejecución fiscal, en caso de que no se haga lugar a la demanda de impugnación de la multa planteada por la actora. Y en el plazo que transcurra hasta aquél entonces, el plazo de prescripción de dicha acción aún no ha comenzado a computarse, ya que la multa aún no es exigible, por lo tanto el temor a que la acción prescriba por tal motivo carece de fundamentos” (TSJ, “in re” “GCBA s/ queja por recurso de inconstitucionalidad denegado en: ‘Mapfre Argentina Seguros SA c/ GCBA s/ otros procesos incidentales en Mapfre Argentina Seguros SA s/ impugnación de actos administrativos’” y su acumulado expte. n° 4297/05 “GCBA s/ queja por recurso de inconstitucionalidad denegado en: ‘GCBA c/ Mapfre Argentina Seguros SA s/ ejecución fiscal’”, Expte. nº 4344/05, sentencia del 3/05/2006, voto de la Dra. Conde).

GCBA c/ Accesorios Italianos SRL y otros, Cámara de Apelaciones Contencioso, Administrativo y Tributario, 6/07/17

Fuente: Departamento de Biblioteca y Jurisprudencia del Consejo de la Magistratura de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires

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