Jurisprudencia sobre desalojo: no puede desvirtuarse el contenido de la sentencia dictada contra los adultos porque se involucren derechos que asisten a los niños

En el marco de un juicio de desalojo, la Sala B de la Cámara Nacional de Apelaciones en lo Civil estableció que no responde a la equidad considerar que los propietarios de los inmuebles ocupados, o cualquiera que posea un interés legítimo para reclamar el desalojo, tengan el deber de proporcionarle a los niños la protección y el amparo que incumbe prestar a quienes ostentan la patria potestad y, en su defecto, a los organismos sociales pertinentes que dependen de la comunidad toda. Sobre la base de lo expuesto, y confirmado el lanzamiento, se ordenó la debida intervención de los organismos encargados de la defensa de los niños y adolescentes en la oportunidad de disponerse el lanzamiento (a los que en el caso ya se les habían cursado las comunicaciones respectivas) pues resultan ellos los que deben encontrar las vías adecuadas para que los niños involucrados no padezcan perjuicios injustos y, a la par, el actor no vea afectado su derecho a recuperar el bien.

Por otro lado, especificó que a los padres u otras personas encargadas del niño les incumbe la responsabilidad primordial de proporcionar, dentro de sus posibilidades y medios económicos, las condiciones de vida que sean necesarias para el desarrollo del niño; los Estados Partes, de acuerdo con las condiciones nacionales y con arreglo a sus medios, adoptarán medidas apropiadas para ayudar a los padres y a otras personas responsables por el niño a dar efectividad a este derecho y, en caso necesario, proporcionarán asistencia material y programas de apoyo, particularmente con respecto a la nutrición, el vestuario y la vivienda. En razón de ello, no resulta posible que se pretenda descargar injustamente sobre unos pocos lo que es un deber primordial de la sociedad en su conjunto.

Gran Rex SRL c/Falcón Cordova, Marcos A. y Otro s/Desalojo por Vencimiento de Contrato, Cámara Nacional de Apelaciones en lo Civil, 09/02/2017.


Buenos Aires, 9 de febrero de 2017.

I.- Contra la sentencia de fs. 46/1947 interpone recurso de apelación la parte demandada. Sus fundamentos obran a fs. 78/1979 y no fueron respondidos.

A fs. 92/1993 funda el recurso respectivo la Defensora Pública de Menores e Incapaces ante esta Cámara de Apelaciones, ejerciendo la representación de Marco Antonio Falcón Salvador y de Guillermo Ian Falcón Salvador, el que es contestado por la actora a fs. 95.

II.- De manera liminar debe decirse que los recursos no contienen una crítica concreta y razonada de la sentencia. La expresión de agravios -o memorial en los recursos concedidos en relación (conf. art. 246, párrafo 1, Código Procesal)- es el acto procesal mediante el cual la parte recurrente fundamenta la apelación, refutando total o parcialmente las conclusiones establecidas en la sentencia, respecto de la apreciación de los hechos y valoración de las pruebas, o a la aplicación de las normas jurídicas (conf. Palacio, “Derecho Procesal Civil”, T°. V, pág. 266, n° 599). Constituye un acto de impugnación destinado específicamente a criticar la sentencia recurrida, con el fin de obtener su revocación o modificación parcial por el Tribunal de apelación (conf. Fenochietto – Arazi, “Código Procesal Comentado”, T. I, pág. 939).

Ese no es el contenido de la presentación, donde se efectúan consideraciones que en modo alguno enervan la pretensión del actor.

Por ello debe concluirse que no es un extremo controvertido que el actor sea titular del derecho a recuperar la tenencia del inmueble.

III.- Frente a la conclusión que se anticipó, se advierte que el conflicto planteado, referido a la situación de los niños y adolescentes, es impropio del decisorio anotado, sino que comprende su ejecución.

Sin embargo, previniendo que la cuestión se suscitará en un futuro inmediato, es que cabe dirimir la controversia en resguardo de la economía procesal.

Es claro que no debe admitirse que se desvirtúe el contenido de la sentencia dictada contra los adultos porque se involucren los derechos que asisten a los niños, eventualmente afectados por la ejecución de aquella. Entiéndase bien, no es cuestión de que tales niños o adolescentes queden a la deriva, vulnerados en sus derechos esenciales, sino de evitar que se produzcan sustituciones inaceptables respecto de las personas a quienes incumbe satisfacer necesidades vitales de aquéllos.

Es que no responde a la equidad concebir que los propietarios de los inmuebles ocupados, o cualquiera que posea un interés legítimo para reclamar el desalojo, tengan el deber de proporcionarle a los niños la protección y el amparo que incumbe prestar a quienes ostentan la patria potestad y, en su defecto, a los organismos sociales pertinentes que dependen de la comunidad toda. No es posible que se pretenda descargar injustamente sobre unos pocos lo que es un deber primordial de la sociedad en su conjunto (Cf. esta Sala, 7-6-2011, “Bures de Hoz, Nélida L. c. Salinas, Ramona A. y otros s/desalojo”, Expte. Libre Nº 545.269. En igual sentido, ver CNCiv., sala H, 15-11- 2010, “B., M.A. y otro s/ocupantes de Suárez 453/197 s/desalojointrusos”; Mizrahi, Mauricio Luis, Intervención del niño en el proceso. El abogado del niño, LL, 11/2010/2011).

El art. 3 ap. 2 de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño establece: “2. Los Estados Partes se comprometen a asegurar al niño la protección y el cuidado que sean necesarios para su bienestar, teniendo en cuenta los derechos y deberes de sus padres, tutores u otras personas responsables de él ante la ley y, con ese fin, tomarán todas las medidas legislativas y administrativas adecuadas” y el art. 27 de dicha Convención, al referirse al tema de la vivienda establece: “2.

A los padres u otras personas encargadas del niño les incumbe la responsabilidad primordial de proporcionar, dentro de sus posibilidades y medios económicos, las condiciones de vida que sean necesarias para el desarrollo del niño. 3. Los Estados Partes, de acuerdo con las condiciones nacionales y con arreglo a sus medios, adoptarán medidas apropiadas para ayudar a los padres y a otras personas responsables por el niño a dar efectividad a este derecho y, en caso necesario, proporcionarán asistencia material y programas de apoyo, particularmente con respecto a la nutrición, el vestuario y la vivienda”.

De acuerdo al art. 32 de la Ley Orgánica del Ministerio Público, la Sra. Defensora General de la Nación, explicitó los fundamentos que llevaron al dictado de la Resolución DGN Nº 1119/2008 por la que las Defensorías ante los Tribunales Orales en lo Criminal intervienen en representación de las personas menores de edad en causas penales por usurpación. Concretamente se dispuso: “I. Instruir a los Sres.

Defensores Públicos de Menores e Incapaces en lo Civil, Comercial y del Trabajo para que tomen intervención en los procesos de desalojo en los que se vean afectados los derechos de los menores de edad a fin de adoptar las medidas necesarias que tengan por objeto la protección integral de los derechos de los niños, niñas y adolescentes reconocidos en nuestro ordenamiento jurídico nacional e instrumentos internacionales de Derechos Humanos en los que el Estado es parte, de conformidad con los considerandos de la presente”. Los principios anotados, rectores en la materia, se replican en otras normas tuitivas como la Ley Nº 26.061 Régimen de Protección Integral de Derechos de Niñas, Niños y Adolescentes, el Pacto Internacional de los Derecho Económicos Sociales y Culturales –art, 75, inc. 22 de la Constitución Nacional-.

En ese contexto deben armonizarse premisas legales que se encuentran en tensión: los derechos de los niños citados y el ejercicio de los derechos del actor sobre el inmueble cuyo desalojo se persigue.

La solución al conflicto ha de hallarse tal como fue anticipado; esto es, con la debida intervención de los organismos encargados de la defensa de los niños y adolescentes en la oportunidad de ordenarse el lanzamiento, a los que ya se han cursado las comunicaciones respectivas; y son ellos los que deben encontrar las vías adecuadas para que los niños involucrados no padezcan perjuicios injustos y, a la par, el actor no vea afectado su derecho a recuperar el bien.

Lo dicho es sin perjuicio de que el juez de grado ordene las medidas del caso de la manera de no causar daños innecesarios; y de la colaboración razonable que puede ser requerida al accionante para reducir los efectos traumáticos del desahucio.

Por ello SE RESUELVE confirmar la sentencia de fs. 46/47 en los términos precedentemente expuestos.

Regístrese y publíquese. Notifíquese, a la Sra. Defensora Pública de Menores e Incapaces, actuante ante esta Cámara de Apelaciones en su despacho y devuélvanse a la instancia de grado.

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