El Nuremberg Argentino… A treinta y un años del inicio al juicio a las juntas militares.

– Por el Dr. Pittier, Lautaro Ezequiel –

El ‘Nüremberg’ argentino, apelativo con el que se alude a aquel proceso, fue una de las primeras decisiones del presidente Raúl Alfonsín para iniciar la andadura de una joven democracia que recién comenzaba a gatear. Se realizó además respetando el principio de juez natural. Los juicios de Nüremberg fueron realizados por la Justicia militar de las naciones victoriosas y la Alemania de ese momento era una nación derrotada y ocupada por cuatro potencias extranjeras.

El juicio a las juntas, por un lado, constituye la piedra angular de la transición democrática argentina, pues permitió que ésta se edificara sobre las reglas del Estado de Derecho, a través de un proceso en el que se aplicó la ley a los más poderosos por la comisión de crímenes atroces, que usualmente quedaban en la impunidad. Por el otro, es un símbolo de la inacabada lucha por los derechos humanos, que hoy se traducen en el derecho a una vida digna.

El resultado del juicio fueron las condenas a reclusión perpetua para Videla, a prisión perpetua para Massera, a 17 años para Viola, a ocho años para Lambruschini y a cuatro años y medio para Agosti. Los delitos que los llevaron al banquillo y las sentencias fueron homicidio agravado por alevosía, privación ilegítima de la libertad agravada por amenazas y violencias, tormentos seguidos de muerte y robo.

El más conocido de los procesos por crímenes de guerra celebrado después de terminar la Segunda Guerra Mundial fue el juicio a los grandes criminales de guerra alemanes que tuvo lugar en Nuremberg, Alemania.

Los jefes del régimen nazi fueron juzgados ante el Tribunal Militar Internacional (TMI) en Nuremberg, compuesto de jueces de Gran Bretaña, Francia, la Unión Soviética, y los Estados Unidos. Este Tribunal juzgó a veintidós alemanes como principales criminales de guerra por conspiración, crímenes contra la paz, crímenes de guerra, y crímenes contra la humanidad.

Se celebraron más de doce juicios en la ciudad alemana de Nuremberg contra más de ciento ochenta acusados de cometer crímenes de ese tipo.

Ante la abrumadora evidencia de violencia sistemática, brutalidad y terrorismo llevados a cabo por el gobierno alemán en los territorios ocupados por sus ejércitos, casi todos los acusados fueron condenados.

Los principios establecidos en los juicios de Nuremberg se ajustaron a los fundamentos de las Declaraciones de Derechos Humanos y supusieron un importante avance en el derecho internacional.

En la percepción pública, parece que el significado histórico del proceso de Nuremberg está relacionado, más que todo, con el último de estos puntos: el cierre definitivo – real y simbólico – de una etapa histórica. En esta perspectiva, el juicio era, para los nazis, la continuación de la derrota militar en el escenario de la justicia.

Lamentablemente estas atrocidades y crímenes contra la humanidad también fueron perpetrados en nuestro suelo escribiendo las páginas más oscuras de nuestra historia.  Aquí, además se celebro un juicio con características diferentes pero en el cual fue de gran utilidad aquella experiencia.

La historia de esos juicios es la crónica de un logro maravilloso de la Argentina, una proeza civil de cuya consecución muy pocos estaban persuadidos, incluso dentro del propio gobierno del presidente Alfonsín.

Esa hazaña no ha sido adecuadamente reconocida por la sociedad argentina. Incluso en ámbitos internacionales, tiene escaso peso específico la dimensión histórica excepcional de los juicios argentinos a las juntas militares, aunque en los medios jurídicos extranjeros la sentencia firmada por los jueces de la Cámara Federal es hoy venerada como materia obligatoria de referencia. Nadie en el mundo hizo tanto, tan rápido y de manera tan contundente. Los veredictos de 1985, cuando en Chile y Brasil gobernaban los militares, en Sudáfrica reinaba el apartheid, Ronald Reagan y Margaret Thatcher eran los líderes indiscutidos de Occidente y el llamado “campo socialista” gozaba aún de agónica vida, son una colosal desmesura argentina.

Como suele suceder, es una hazaña poco conocida y mezquinamente asumida. Pero no sólo se necesitó de un presidente como Alfonsín para hacerla viable. Los artesanos individuales de esa fantástica afirmación del principio de la justicia y la consecuente derrota de la noción de impunidad fueron magistrados de la carrera judicial, hombres comunes con vidas parecidas y diferentes, pero a los que el azar impulsó a tener que proyectarse como seres extraordinarios.

Esta es la parte más estremecedora de esta historia, la de seis jueces que, con el aporte decisivo de un fiscal excepcional y de una pequeña patrulla de seres indispensables que buscaron y recogieron las pruebas, sistematizaron los datos y averiguaron en los pliegues más tenebrosos del horror para que se supiera la verdad, hicieron lo que tenían que hacer. Es una historia de gente común, argentinos a los que nadie reconocería en el subte, personas que a la hora de priorizar los valores optaron por la decencia y allí se abroquelaron.

Este es un humilde homenaje a esas personas que trabajaron para que la cruda y oscura verdad saliera a la luz. En el juicio se ventilaron 231 casos paradigmáticos que mostraban el descenso al infierno de toda la condición humana.

 “Señores jueces: voy a concluir con una frase que no me pertenece, porque pertenece ya a todo el pueblo argentino: Nunca más”, dijo antes que la sala estallara en aplausos, llantos y vivas.

La frase, que inmortalizó Strassera, efectivamente no le pertenecía ya que era título del documento final de la Comisión Nacional sobre la Desaparición de Personas (Conadep).

Recordar estos tremendos horrores, recrear y estudiar estos juicios no sólo resulta importante desde lo técnico- jurídico sino que contribuye a crear conciencia de la enorme magnitud de estos crímenes que tanto daño causaron a la humanidad.


Referencias del autor

Abogado. Director de Asuntos Jurídicos de la Facultad de Derecho en la Universidad Nacional de Lomas de Zamora (UNLZ). Docente de la Facultad de Derecho y de la Facultad de Ciencias Económicas en la UNLZ. Ex abogado Dictaminante Especializado en la Dirección de Asuntos Jurídicos del Ministerio de Ciencia Tecnología e Innovación Productiva de la Nación.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9UN8vM2YHZ8

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